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Making Children More Successful! Spectrum, our best-selling workbook series, is proud to provide quality educational materials that meet students’ needs for learning achievement and success.

WORD STUDY AND PHONICS

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 helps young learners improve and strengthen their phonics skills, such as: • Digraphs • Diphthongs • Syllabication

• Acronyms • Figures of speech • Dictionary skills

Grade 6

Reading (Grades K–6) Math (Grades K–8) Spelling (Grades 1–6) Writing (Grades 1–8) Language Arts (Grades 2–6) Vocabulary (Grades 3–6) Test Prep (Grades 1–8) Test Practice (Grades 1—8)

Excellent Tool for Standardized Test Preparation!

Geography (Grades 3–6) Phonics (Grades K–3) Word Study and Phonics (Grades 4–6) Science Test Prep (Grades 3–8) Basic Concepts and Skills (Preschool) Learning Letters (Preschool) Math Readiness (Preschool)

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ISBN 0-7696-8296-0

• • • • • • •

Digraphs Diphthongs Syllabication Acronyms Figures of speech Dictionary skills Answer key

Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Published by

Frank Schaffer Publications®

Frank Schaffer Publications® Spectrum is an imprint of Frank Schaffer Publications. Printed in the United States of America. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission from the publisher, unless otherwise indicated. Frank Schaffer Publications is an imprint of School Specialty Publishing. Copyright © 2007 School Specialty Publishing. Send all inquiries to: Frank Schaffer Publications 8720 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240-2111 Spectrum Word Study and Phonics—grade 6 ISBN 0-7696-8296-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 POH 11 10 09 08 07 06

Lessonof1.2 Table Contents Grade 6 Chapter 1 Phonics Lesson 1.1 Hard and Soft c and g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lesson 1.2 The Sounds of s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Review: Hard and Soft c and g and the Sounds of s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Lesson 1.3 Consonant Digraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Lesson 1.4 Silent Consonants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Lesson 1.5 More Silent Consonants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Lesson 1.6 Ti and Ci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Review: Digraphs, Silent Consonants, ti and ci . . . . 22 Lesson 1.7 Vowel Sounds (ai, ay, ei, ey) . . . . . . . . . . 24 Lesson 1.8 Vowel Sounds (ee, ea, ie, ey). . . . . . . . . . 26 Lesson 1.9 Vowel Sounds (ind, ild, igh) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Lesson 1.10 Vowel Sounds (oa, ow, old, oll, ost) . . . . 30 Review: Vowel Sounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Lesson 1.11 Vowel Sounds (oo, ew, ou, ui, ue) . . . . . 34 Lesson 1.12 Vowel Sounds (au, aw, al, alk, all) . . . . . 36 Lesson 1.13 Vowel Diphthongs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Review: Vowel Sounds and Diphthongs . . . . . . . . . . 40 Lesson 1.14 The Schwa Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Lesson 1.15 The Sounds of y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Lesson 1.16 R-Controlled Vowels (ar, er, ir, or, ur) . . . 48 Lesson 1.17 More r-Controlled Vowels (air, are, ear, eer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Review: Schwa, the Sounds of y, and r-Controlled Vowels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Table of Contents 3

Table of Contents, continued Chapter 2 Word Structure Lesson 2.1 Base Words and Endings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Lesson 2.2 Comparative Endings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Review: Base Words and Endings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Lesson 2.3 Plurals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Lesson 2.4 Irregular Plurals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Lesson 2.5 Possessives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Review: Plurals, Irregular Plurals, and Possessives . . . 66 Lesson 2.6 Compound Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Lesson 2.7 Contractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Review: Compound Words and Contractions. . . . . 72 Lesson 2.8 Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Lesson 2.9 Suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Review: Prefixes and Suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Lesson 2.10 Syllabication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Review: Syllabication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Chapter 3 Vocabulary Lesson 3.1 Synonyms and Antonyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Lesson 3.2 Shades of Meaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Lesson 3.3 Levels of Specificity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Review: Synonyms, Antonyms, Shades of Meaning, and Levels of Specificity . . . . . . . . . . 100 Lesson 3.4 hom*ophones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Lesson 3.5 Multiple-Meaning Words . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Review: hom*ophones and Multiple-Meaning Words. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 4

Table of Contents

Table of Contents, continued Lesson 3.6 Clipped Words and Acronyms . . . . . . . 108 Lesson 3.7 Word Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Review: Clipped Words, Acronyms, and Word Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Lesson 3.8 Figures of Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Lesson 3.9 Idioms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Lesson 3.10 Analogies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Review: Figures of Speech, Idioms, and Analogies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Chapter 4 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins Lesson 4.1 Guide Words and Entry Words . . . . . . . 126 Lesson 4.2 Word Families. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Review: Guide Words, Entry Words, and Word Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Lesson 4.3 Frequently Used Foreign Words. . . . . . . 132 Lesson 4.4 Word Histories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Review: Frequently Used Foreign Words and Word Histories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Lesson 4.5 Greek Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Lesson 4.6 Latin Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Review: Greek and Latin Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Lesson 4.7 Pronunciation Key and Respellings. . . . 144 Lesson 4.8 Accent Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Review: Respellings and Accent Marks . . . . . . . . . 150

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Table of Contents 5

NAME

Lesson 1.1 Hard and Soft c and g The letters c and g can make a hard sound, as in candle and ground. When followed by e, i, or y, they can make a soft sound, as in gerbil and fancy. Read each bold word. Decide whether it has a hard or soft sound and underline the word beside it that has the same sound. 1. gateway

gypsy

began

fragile

2. coliseum

receipt

cider

because

3. tragic

forgotten

legend

gopher

4. gardenia

gesture

segment

vegetable

5. collaborate

electric

sincerely

cinder

On the line next to each bold word below, write HC (hard c), HG (hard g), SC (soft c), or SG (soft g) to show which sound the word contains. 1. A comet ____________________ is a body in the solar system that is made of ice ____________________, dust, and gases. 2. The word comet has its origins ____________________ in Latin and Greek ____________________. It means hairy one or hairy star. 3. Before scientists ____________________ had determined what comets were, many people considered ____________________ them to be bad omens. 4. A comet that travels close to the sun is visible from Earth as an object ____________________ that glows ___________________ with a long, streaming tail. 5. The forces ____________________ of the sun, including pressure and solar wind, cause ____________________ a comet’s tail to form from gas ____________________ and dust. 6. For this reason, the tail generally ____________________ points away from the sun. 7. Halley’s comet, which appears approximately once ____________________ every 76 years, was last seen in 1986.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 1 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.1 Hard and Soft c and g Read the paragraphs below. Write the words that contain the hard and soft c and g sounds in the correct columns. You do not need to list the same word more than once unless it can be listed in more than one category. Anyone who has ever seen a geyser is sure to agree that geysers are one of the wonders of the natural world. A geyser is a type of hot spring that shoots streams of water and steam directly into the air. Geysers exist in only a few regions on Earth, including Japan, Iceland, and New Zealand. The largest geyser field in the world, however, is located here in the United States at Yellowstone National Park. Approximately 400 geysers steam, bubble, and gurgle at Yellowstone! Geysers occur when water seeps underground and is heated by magma, or molten rock. The steam and boiling water are trapped by cooler water in tube-like passages underground. Pressure continues to build, and eventually water and steam shoot out of the geyser in a giant burst. The remaining water in the geyser cools down so that it is no longer boiling, and the eruption ends. As the water seeps back into the earth, the whole cycle begins again. The eruptions of some geysers are predictable. Yellowstone’s Old Faithful erupts about every 80 minutes and shoots as much as 8,500 gallons of boiling water nearly 200 feet in the air. It’s quite a spectacle to see, and tourists are often on hand to witness the amazing event—at a safe distance. Hard g: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Soft g:

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Hard c: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Soft c:

____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 1 Phonics 7

NAME

Lesson 1.2 The Sounds of s The letter s can make several different sounds. • It can make the /s/ sound, as in salute. • It can make the /z/ sound, as in positive. • It can make the /sh/ sound, as in insurance. • It can make the /zh/ sound, as in usually. Read each set of words below. On the line, write the letters of the two words in which s makes the same sound. 1. ______ a. fusion

b. sandbox

c. museum

d. casual

2. ______ a. reasoning

b. sanctuary

c. includes

d. tissue

3. ______ a. scurry

b. composed

c. intermission

d. surely

4. ______ a. cheese

b. trustworthy

c. tremendous

d. measure

5. ______ a. vision

b. explanations

c. scuba

d. Asia

6. ______ a. superior

b. headquarters

c. sugary

d. pleasing

7. ______ a. observation

b. pleasurable

c. treasure

d. tension

8. ______ a. harness

b. erosion

c. sophom*ore

d. ours

Read the words in the box. Write each word under the correct heading below. expansion basketball refusal sugar composition postpone precision visionary permission newspaper /s/ sound

/z/ sound

preservative frustrate tissue division casually restless

/zh/ sound

/sh/ sound

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 8

Chapter 1 Lesson 2 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.2 The Sounds of s On the line, write the s sound you hear in each bold word. Choose from /s/ (as in soup), /z/ (as in these), /zh/ (as in invasion), and /sh/ (as in mission). Pam Muñoz Ryan has written many different types of books. Writing about a diverse ____________________ group of topics ____________________ keeps things fresh and interesting for her. She gets her ideas from moments in history ____________________, stories she hears on the news ____________________, and sometimes even from her family. For example, Ryan’s picture book Amelia and Eleanor Go for a Ride is based ____________________ on a flight that Amelia Earhart and Eleanor Roosevelt ____________________ took over Washington D.C. In the novel Esperanza Rising ____________________, Ryan tells a fictionalized version ____________________ of her grandmother’s ____________________ journey from Mexico to the United States. Ryan also keeps an idea file. She jots down notes on scraps ____________________ of paper, napkins ____________________, and the backs of receipts. When she is ready to begin a new project, she can flip through her file and look for story ideas that are unusual ____________________ or ones that she feels especially passionate ____________________ about. When Ryan speaks to children at libraries ____________________ or schools, she tries to give them a realistic ____________________ picture of what it’s like to be a writer. She doesn’t want them to get the impression ____________________ that a writer’s life is strictly glamorous ____________________. She reminds ____________________ her audience that working from home isn’t usually ____________________ the leisurely ____________________ pastime that some imagine it to be.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 2 Phonics 9

NAME

Review Hard and Soft c and g and the Sounds of s Complete each riddle below with a word from the box. The word you choose should make sense in the riddle and contain the correct sound shown in parentheses. centipede refrigerator Antarctica Cinderella frogs because Q: Why is a river rich?

REVIEW: CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 1–2

A: ____________________ it has two banks (hard c) Q: Why did the boy close the ____________________ door quickly? (soft g) A: Because he saw the salad dressing Q: Where do frozen ants come from? A: ____________________ (hard c) Q: What do you get if you cross a ____________________ and a parrot? (soft c) A: A walkie-talkie Q: What year do ____________________ like best? (hard g) A: Leap year Q: Why was ____________________ thrown off the baseball team? (soft c) A: Because she ran away from the ball Read the word pairs below. Underline the c or g sound you hear in both words. 1. gingerbread

geometric

hard g

soft g

2. juggling

guardian

hard g

soft g

3. village

generally

hard g

soft g

4. climate

counterclockwise

hard c

soft c

5. circulation

reception

hard c

soft c

6. convey

occasional

hard c

soft c

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 10

Review: Lessons 1–2 Phonics

NAME

Review Hard and Soft c and g and the Sounds of s Unscramble the bold letters and write the word that matches each clue. The hint in parentheses will tell you which sound of s the word contains. ____________________

2. garments; covering for the body oceslth (/z/)

____________________

3. protection against loss from fire or death isurncena (/sh/)

____________________

4. an antonym for negative tipsiove (/z/)

____________________

5. a small spoon onastepo (/s/)

____________________

Circle the 4 words below that contain the /sh/ sound of s and underline the 14 words that contain the /z/ sound of s. Do not mark the same word twice. Dear Diary, My grandparents gave me a season pass to the art museum for a birthday present this year. It’s only four subway stops away from our new apartment, so I can visit as frequently as I like. I’ve been there several times on field trips, but it is so large, that I think it would take a whole lifetime to know every piece of art. The new expansion will be complete this spring, and I can’t wait to see what has changed. When Isabel and I go this weekend, I’d like to spend some time looking at the work of the Impressionists. In Mr. Yang’s class, we recently learned about the issue that a group of artists had in France during the late 1800s. The French Academy was powerful, and they pressured artists to create certain types of work. The group that would later become known as the Impressionists had their own vision of what art could be. Maybe someday I’ll have the pleasure of seeing my own artwork hanging proudly on those same walls.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 1–2 Phonics 11

REVIEW: CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 1–2

1. unique; not common uusalun (/zh/)

NAME

Lesson 1.3 Consonant Digraphs A digraph is a blend of two consonants that form a new sound. • The digraph sh makes the /sh/ sound in eggshell. • The digraph ch can make the /ch/, /sh/, or /k/ sound, as in charcoal, chauffeur, and chemistry. Read the sentences below. On each line, write the sound (/sh/, /ch/, or /k/) the digraph makes in the bold word. 1. In March ____________________, Alena’s cousin Chris ____________________ came to visit. 2. Alena’s family had just adopted Charlotte ____________________, a bloodhound. 3. “She’s a bit shy ____________________,” Alena advised her cousin as she unlatched ____________________ the leash ____________________. 4. “She’s ____________________ beautiful,” commented Chris.“Did you research ____________________ dog breeds before you chose ____________________ her?” 5. Alena nodded.“The chef ____________________ at my stepdad’s restaurant told us about a shelter ____________________ in Chicago ____________________ that rescues bloodhounds.” 6. “The skin around the eyes and ears captures scents. Bloodhounds have a sharp ____________________ sense of smell and are excellent tracking dogs.” 7. “What kind of character ____________________ do they have?” asked Chris. 8. “They tend to be cheerful ____________________ and easygoing,” replied Alena. 9. “She doesn’t like chipmunks ____________________ or men with mustaches ____________________,” continued Alena with a grin,“but other than that, she’s been in a chronic ____________________ good mood since we got her.”

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 12

Chapter 1 Lesson 3 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.3 Consonant Digraphs • The digraph th can make the unvoiced sound (/th/), as in thumb, and the voiced sound (/th/), as in bother. • The digraph wh can make the /hw/ sound, as in whitewash, and the /h/ sound, as in wholesale. • The digraph ph makes the /f/ sound, as in photocopy. Read the clues below. On the line, write the word from the box that matches the clue and has the sound listed in parentheses. Then, find each word in the word search puzzle. Words may be written forward, backward, or diagonally. theater

Philippines

northern

whimper

sympathy

wholesome

pharmacy

1. a place where people go to watch a movie (/th/) ____________________ 2. an antonym for southern (/th/) ____________________ 3. a country in southeast Asia that has thousands of islands (/f/) ____________________ 4. healthful; nutritious (/h/) ____________________ 5. a feeling of pity or sorrow for another person (/th/) ____________________ 6. a weak, whining sort of cry (/hw/) ____________________ 7. a place where people go to buy prescription medicine (/f/) ____________________ y

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Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 3 Phonics 13

NAME

Lesson 1.3 Consonant Digraphs The digraphs ck, ng, and gh can come in the middle or at the end of a word. • The digraph ck makes the /k/ sound, as in speckled. • The digraph ng makes the /ng/ sound, as in amazing. • The digraph gh can make the /f/ sound, as in coughed. Complete each sentence below with a word from the box. Circle the digraphs ck, ng, and gh in the words you use. scoring block rough entering surprising hockey puck playing enough increasing opposing wearing stick 1. ____________________ is a team sport played on ice by players ____________________ skates. 2. It is not really ____________________ that hockey is most popular in regions of the world that stay relatively cold, such as Canada, Finland, and Russia. 3. Because a rubber disc called a ____________________ can fly at speeds of more than 100 miles per hour, hockey can be a ____________________ and dangerous game. 4. Even plenty of protective equipment isn’t always ____________________ to keep a player safe. 5. A goaltender’s job is to keep the puck from ____________________ the net and thus keep the ____________________ team from ____________________ a point. 6. The goalie may ____________________ a shot with his or her body, which is well padded with protective gear, or he or she may use a hockey ____________________ as the rest of the players do. 7. Most ice hockey teams are comprised of men, but women have played the game since at least the 1800s. Today, the number of women ____________________ the sport is rapidly ____________________.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 14

Chapter 1 Lesson 3 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.3 Consonant Digraphs Read the paragraphs below. On each line, write the digraph (sh, ch, th, or ng) that correctly completes the bold word. Few people would argue that life in America today isn’t fast-paced, noisy, and sometimes ______aotic. Things are different, ______ough, for a group of Americans called the Ami______. If you live in a Midwestern state, like Ohio, Indiana, or Kansas, you might be familiar with the Amish. They came to America in the early 1700s seeki______ religious freedom, and their way of life has remained relatively un______anged since then. The more traditional Amish are members of the Old Order. They ______un, or reject, many conveniences of modern-day life. For example, many Old Order Amish ______oose not to use electricity in their homes. ______ey travel by horse and buggy instead of usi______ automobiles. They farm and are able to produce mu______ of their food ______emselves. The Amish are known for their stro______ sense of community. Their barn-raisi______s are a famous example of what can be accompli______ed with cooperation. Hundreds of men work toge______er to raise a barn for one family. For the Old Order Amish, this means working wi______out power tools. The women have a similar sense of cooperation and community when they ga______er to make pat______work quilts at quilti______ bees. The Amish are resistant to ______ange and remain separate from mainstream society in many ways. Living simply without outside influences is important to their way of life. Family, ______ildren, work, community, and spirituality are cornerstones of Amish life. Can you see any similarities between your life and the Amish way of life?

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 3 Phonics 15

NAME

Lesson 1.4 Silent Consonants In some consonant pairs, one letter is silent. • The letter k is silent when it comes before n, as in kneel. • The letter w is silent when it comes before r, as in wreath. • The letter c can be silent when it follows s, as in scissors. • The letter b can be silent when it follows m, as in tomb. Fill in the blank in each sentence below with a word from the box. Circle the silent letter in the word. knight

breadcrumbs

knapsack

wrapper

scenic

thumb

1. The secret to Aunt Lulu’s meatloaf is using ____________________ made from homemade sourdough bread. 2. The hiker filled her ____________________ with food, water, and a map. 3. Primates are similar to humans in their use of the opposable ____________________. 4. The Hahns decided to take the ____________________ route through the mountains, even though it added a couple of hours to their trip. 5. Although any free man could become a ____________________ during the Middle Ages, it was generally men from wealthy families who received this honor. 6. The plastic ____________________ covering the CD was difficult to remove. Read each bold word. Circle the word beside it that has the same sound as the underlined letters. 1. thumb

timber

clumsy

thimble

2. knickers

kayak

kaleidoscope

nightmare

3. lamb

comb

member

mumble

4. wrath

wholesale

roundtrip

woodwind

5. science

sabotage

collision

insurance

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 16

Chapter 1 Lesson 4 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.4 Silent Consonants The interview below contains 18 words that have the silent consonant pairs kn, wr, sc, and mb. Circle the words and draw a line through each silent letter. Vijay Mehta: When did you first know that you wanted to be a singer and songwriter? Carson Bell: That’s an interesting question. I came from a tightly-knit family, and as a child, my brothers and I spent a great deal of time listening to music. We imitated what we heard, and we eventually started creating our own music. VM:

So you always knew you wanted to write music or somehow be involved in the music industry?

CB:

No, it was actually a much longer road for me. I was taking the scenic way home from work one night, when I did something dumb. I had a paper cut on my thumb, and I tried to look for a bandage in the glove compartment while I was driving.

VM:

What happened?

CB:

Well, I wrecked my car, but luckily I didn’t do too much damage to myself. When I climbed out of the car, my left wrist hurt pretty badly and I had broken my kneecap, but I was okay.

VM:

Did the accident have an impact on your life?

CB:

It absolutely did. I enjoyed my job and working in the field of science, but I didn’t feel the same passion for it as I had for music. I wrestled with the decision of what I really wanted to do with my life. The scenes from my childhood kept replaying themselves over and over in my mind.

VM:

Is that when you went out on a limb and changed your career path?

CB:

Yes, and I’ve never regretted my decision or felt that I had made the wrong choice. I think that knowledge of yourself and the things that are a priority to you are essential to feeling happy and fulfilled.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 4 Phonics 17

NAME

Lesson 1.5 More Silent Consonants When two or three consonants appear together, one letter is sometimes silent. • The letter g can be silent when it comes before n, as in gnome. • The letter d is silent when it comes before g, as in fudge. • The letter h is silent when it follows r, as in rhombus. • The letter t is silent when it comes before ch, as in hatch. • The letters gh can be silent, as in sight. Read each clue below. The word that matches the clue is written in bold beside it, but the letters are scrambled. Unscramble the letters, and write the word on the line. Hint: Each word will contain a silent consonant pair. 1. perfume

ogcolne

____________________

2. the sound a person makes when exhaling

hsig

____________________

3. a regular, repeated musical beat

mrythh

____________________

4. to trade or exchange

ciwtsh

____________________

5. an animal that has a single horn on its head

osrinohcer ____________________

6. great pleasure or joy

lidegth

____________________

7. to promise or swear

lpgeed

____________________

8. from another country

eigforn

____________________

9. a type of small ax

thaceth

____________________

Read each word below. Find a rhyming word in the box and write it on the line. Then, cross out the silent letter or letters. thighs

pitcher

hutch

straight

hedge

rhyme

gnaw

1. cries

____________________

5. touch

____________________

2. claw

____________________

6. pledge

____________________

3. richer

____________________

7. wait

____________________

4. incline

____________________

8. climb

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 18

assign

Chapter 1 Lesson 5 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.5 More Silent Consonants Read the sentences below. Complete each bold word with one of these silent letter combinations: gn, dg, rh, tch, or gh. 1. He______ehogs are insectivores, or animals whose diets consist mostly of insects. 2. Before Heath’s soccer team began their afternoon practice, the coach led them through a series of warm-up stre______es. 3. Sasha helped desi______ and paint the colorful sets for the class play. 4. Cody helped his dad roll out the dou______ to make his favorite dessert—strawberry-______ubarb pie. 5. In November, Clay had to resi______ from his position as class president because his family was moving to Missouri. 6. Every summer, Desi and Gabby visit their grandmother in ______ode Island. 7. Last year, Grandma Nell and the girls worked together to make a pa______work quilt for the new baby. 8. When Uncle Ross joined the Peace Corps, he had no idea which forei______ country he’d be living in for the next two years. Read each word in bold below and circle the silent letter combination. On the line, write the letter of the word beside it that contains the same combination. 1. ______ wedged

a. passage

b. trudging

c. village

2. ______ rhapsody

a. resemblance

b. radioactive

c. rhythmic

3. ______ uptight

a. neigh

b. coughed

c. thimbles

4. ______ assignment

a. sagging

b. signoff

c. assistance

5. ______ sketching

a. hopscotch

b. bleacher

c. spinach

6. ______ judging

a. courage

b. college

c. knowledgeable

7. ______ limelight

a. enough

b. high

c. August

8. _____ crutches

a. chimpanzee

b. cherished

c. stitching

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 5 Phonics 19

NAME

Lesson 1.6 Ti and Ci The letters ti and ci can stand for the /sh/ sound, as in cautious and magician. Read the paragraphs below. Circle the 14 words that contain the /sh/ sound spelled ti. Underline the three words that contain the /sh/ sound spelled ci. You do not need to mark the same word twice. The Mayan civilization was at its strongest between A.D. 250 and A.D. 900. It existed in what is today Guatemala, Belize, Mexico, Honduras, and El Salvador. For many years, the Mayan people were somewhat of a mystery to the historians and archaeologists who studied them. What could have made such a powerful and advanced nation decline so drastically? they wondered. The Maya were proficient in agriculture and practiced the cultivation of maize (a type of corn), beans, squash, peppers, avocados, and pineapples. They had an advanced system of irrigation and also used other farming techniques, like rotating crops and building terraces. There were more than 40 Mayan cities, and at one time, the population may have reached two million. The Maya used a system of hieroglyphic writing, similar to Egyptian hieroglyphics. The Mayan hieroglyphs, as well as inscriptions carved in rock, are important sources of information for modern-day researchers. The Maya are considered to have been the most advanced ancient civilization in the Western Hemisphere. What caused their decline? It may have been vicious wars, natural disasters, or a disease that wiped out large portions of the population. About 800,000 people today speak Mayan languages. Many modern Maya still live an agricultural lifestyle like their ancestors did. Their preservation of the Mayan culture and traditions in modern society give it the potential to be passed along for generations to come.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 20

Chapter 1 Lesson 6 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.6 Ti and Ci Read the sentences below. Fill in each blank with the letters ti or ci. 1. By the day of the audi______on, Madeline had bitten off all her fingernails and had moved on to nervously twirling a piece of hair around her finger. 2. Her favorite teacher, Patri______a Mooney, had made the sugges______on that Madeline apply to the Raddatz School for the Performing Arts. 3. “You have too much poten______al to ignore,” Ms. Mooney told Madeline. 4. “The Raddatz School is the finest institu______on in this area,” she added. 5. “You have such a spe______al voice, and the training you would receive could be very benefi______al to you if you decided to pursue a singing career.” 6. Madeline knew the competi______on would be fierce, so she tried not to have expecta______ons that were too high. 7. The day of the audition, Madeline took lots of deep breaths and pa______ently waited her turn. 8. When she had finished singing, she tried to read the fa______al expressions of the admissions panel. 9. They gra______ously thanked her and told her that they appre______ated her energy and enthusiasm. 10. Two weeks later, when Madeline was starting to have a strong suspi______on that she hadn’t been accepted, she received her offi______al letter. 11. “After all that specula______on and worrying about rejec______on, it’s nice to finally have an answer,” Madeline admitted to Ms. Mooney. 12. Her teacher laughed.“This calls for a celebra______on!” she exclaimed.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 6 Phonics 21

NAME

Review Digraphs, Silent Consonants, ti and ci

REVIEW: CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 3–6

On the line, write the letter of the word that has the same sound as the digraph of the word in bold. 1. ______ chocolate

a. Cheryl

b. chemistry

c. sandwich

2. ______ otherwise

a. gather

b. ruthless

c. tollbooth

3. ______ whittle

a. wheelchair

b. whomever

c. wholly

4. ______ physician

a. presume

b. foreground

c. path

5. ______ chromosome

a. parchment

b. mushroom

c. kimono

6. ______ dwelling

a. dwarf

b. anguish

c. hallway

Fill in the blank in each sentence below with a word from the box. Underline the silent letter or letters in the word. lambs

wrinkled

budge

designed

knew

hatched

neighed

1. The sheep and the spring ____________________ trotted across the pasture as the Border collie herded them toward the barn. 2. It was time to milk the goats, but a stubborn female named Christabel refused to ____________________ for Eli. 3. When they heard the clanging of the slop buckets, the pigs immediately ____________________ it was time for breakfast. 4. As he walked across the barnyard, Eli ____________________ his nose and stopped to see if he had stepped in some cow manure. 5. Three chicks had ____________________ early that morning, and the mother hen clucked proudly as she fussed over her new brood. 6. The horses ____________________ and whinnied in their stalls, anxious for their morning feed and a bit of attention. 7. Eli checked the vegetable garden and was satisfied to see that the fence he had ____________________ and built with his father was successful at keeping the animals away. Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 22

Review: Lessons 3–6 Phonics

NAME

Review Digraphs, Silent Consonants, ti and ci Read the paragraphs below and complete the items that follow. Chopsticks are eating utensils used in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. They are thought to have been invented in China between three and five thousand years ago and are used as tongs or pincers. They may be made of wood, bamboo, metal, bone, ivory, or even plastic. In Japan, the word otemoto, Japanese for chopstick, is often

The proper way to hold chopsticks is between the thumb and fingers. The bottom stick stays stationary, while the top stick moves up and down to grasp the food. If the chef has cut the food into small pieces and the rice is sticky enough, eating with chopsticks is simple. 1. On the lines, write two words that contain the /th/ sound and two that contain the /th/ sound. ____________________ ____________________

____________________

____________________

2. On the lines, list three words in which /ch/ makes different sounds. ____________________

____________________

____________________

3. Underline the four words in the paragraphs that contain silent consonant pairs. 4. Circle all the digraphs in the first paragraph. Underline the pair of letters that correctly completes each bold word below. 1. Visit Cut ’n’ Curl Salon in Linden Shopping Center—our professionally trained beauti______ans (ti, ci) will help you look your best! 2. Atten______on (ti, ci) pet owners! For one weekend only, bring your dog or cat to Petshop Plus and receive a goodie bag FREE with any purchase. 3. Men______on (ti, ci) this ad, and you’ll receive $2.00 off the price of admission when you visit the San Francisco Museum of History’s Egyp______an (ti, ci) exhibit.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 3–6 Phonics 23

REVIEW: CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 3–6

written on the wrapper in Japanese characters.

NAME

Lesson 1.7 Vowel Sounds (ai, ay, ei, ey) The vowel pairs ai, ay, ei, and ey can make the long a sound, as in remain, hooray, reign, and prey. Read the paragraphs below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that has the same long a sound as the bold word. If you like stamps, a collection is fairly easy to establish. Although “snail-mail” (weigh, forehead) isn’t as popular as it once was, collecting stamps remains (habitat, halfway) one of the most popular hobbies today (cloak, convey). Buying new stamps and obtaining (unlatched, everyday) stamps from other collectors is probably the best way to start. The first thing to do is decide what focus your collection will have. Will you collect stamps only from faraway (veil, transplant) places? Do you have any other interests, like trains (mishap, weekday), cats, art, soccer, or railroad (disobey, seaweed) souvenirs? Your interests can be a good starting point when choosing a theme for your collection. Some people collect first-day (maintain, caravan) covers, which are envelopes that have stamps attached to them that were canceled on the first day the stamp was issued. Souvenir sheets are also popular. They (restrained, healthy) are sheets that have a picture, such as a jungle or an underwater scene, printed on them. It may (upbeat, mermaid) be difficult for a beginner to know how much a stamp is worth. The Internet can be a good source of information. Plenty of sites explain (unlatch, swaying) the characteristics that make stamps valuable. If you’re afraid (reindeer, instead) that you’ve overpaid (approach, hey) for a stamp, it could still be worth researching. Some counterfeit stamps are actually rarer, and so more valuable, than the real stamp they were meant to imitate!

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 24

Chapter 1 Lesson 7 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.7 Vowel Sounds (ai, ay, ei, ey) Read the e-mail below. Circle the 16 words that contain the long a sound spelled ai, ay, ei, and ey. You do not need to mark the same word twice. From: Date: To: Subject:

[emailprotected] May 23, 2008 [emailprotected] What’s up?

Dear Riley, Are you feeling any better today? It’s probably a good thing that you stayed home. Eight other people were absent with the same cold, and Mr. Tanaka made the rest of the class promise we’d do our best to remain healthy. Ms. Capshaw handed back our essays yesterday. She said I managed to “convey the important points of the argument and convince my audience” of my perspective. Hooray! It’s nice to get such praise for a paper that I put so much time and effort into. Did I tell you that I even interviewed my neighbor about his experiences during World War II? I think he’ll be quite pleased to see that the details he contributed helped me obtain the results I’d hoped for. Let me know if you think you’ll have recovered enough to meet me at the subway station in the A.M. Talk to you later! Alvaro p.s. Did you fill out the PTA’s survey yet? If they receive ninety percent of the surveys by Friday afternoon, they’ll pay for a pizza party after the Spring Dance!

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 7 Phonics 25

NAME

Lesson 1.8 Vowel Sounds (ee, ea, ie, ey) The letters ee, ea, ie, and ey can make the long e sound you hear in thirteen, wreath, relief, and chimney. Read each clue. Fill in the letters to complete the word that matches the clue. 1. to promise or make certain

guarant____ ____

2. below

undern____ ____th

3. one part at a time

p____ ____cemeal

4. a mixture or assortment

medl____ ____

5. a type of algae found in the sea

s____ ____ w____ ____d

6. to read something and mark errors

proofr____ ____d

7. a person who makes a living sewing

s____ ____mstress

Read the sentences below. Underline the words that contain the long e sound spelled ee, ea, ie, and ey. You do not need to mark the same word twice. 1. Chimpanzees and other monkeys are frequently the stars of slapstick comedies. 2. Field of Dreams, starring Kevin Costner, is a popular movie with baseball fans of all ages. 3. The Ransom of Red Chief stars Academy Award nominee Haley Joel Osment. 4. Eddie Murphy provided the voice of the donkey in the animated movie Shrek. 5. The canine lead in Because of Winn-Dixie is named for the supermarket where he was found. 6. Cheaper by the Dozen tells the hilarious story of Mr. and Mrs. Baker raising their enormous brood while trying to fulfill their own dreams, too.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 26

Chapter 1 Lesson 8 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.8 Vowel Sounds (ee, ea, ie, ey) Read each sentence and the set of words below it. Underline the word that has the same long e sound as the bold word. 1. On a rainy afternoon, Audrey and her cousin, Kyle, decided to see if they could find anything interesting in their grandparents’ attic. lying

ordeal

healthful

2. Kyle shook out an old blanket that covered a trunk and sneezed as a cloud of fine dust surrounded him. widespread

implement

attorney

3. After a few minutes, he succeeded in opening the rusty latch on the trunk. heartbeat

suspend

beige

4. Underneath a pile of yellowed, brittle napkins, Audrey found some photos. suppress

dreadful

antifreeze

5. In the first one, a dapper gentleman wearing a striped cap and old-fashioned clothes stood with one hand on a trolley. gymnastics

bittersweet

stowaway

6. Audrey laughed in disbelief.“I had no idea Gramps drove a trolley car!” Tennessee

nonsense

their

7. “Look at this antique timepiece,” said Kyle, pulling a pocket watch from a clothlined box. represent

kidney

freight

8. “It’s the same one Gramps is wearing in the photo,” Audrey said, reaching for the picture. dredge

stealth

parsley

9. “I bet there are stories for every photo in that bundle,” said Kyle. cleave

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

inept

forehead

Chapter 1 Lesson 8 Phonics 27

NAME

Lesson 1.9 Vowel Sounds (ind, ild, igh) The vowel i can make a long sound when followed by nd, ld, or gh, as in behind, mild, and daylight. Read the clues below. Choose the word from the box that matches each clue, and write it in the numbered space in the crossword puzzle. rind

mild wild

mastermind hindsight copyright slight colorblind frightened

Across 1. legal protection for a creative work, like a book or play 3. small in size or amount 4. moderate; not extreme 6. an antonym for tame 7. scared; having fear 8. a person who directs a project 1.

Down 1. unable to see certain colors 2. a clear view or understanding of a situation after it has occurred 5. the tough outer covering of a fruit

2.

3. 5. 4.

6.

7.

8.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 28

Chapter 1 Lesson 9 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.9 Vowel Sounds (ind, ild, igh) Read the words below. Circle the letter of the word or words in each set that have a long i sound. 1. a. transmit

b. blight

c. yield

d. mildest

2. a. childish

b. birthright

c. humankind

d. handkerchief

3. a. behind

b. hardship

c. obtain

d. overnight

4. a. collies

b. bullfight

c. imprint

d. flinching

5. a. childhood

b. squid

c. outright

d. battleship

Write the words that contain the long i sound spelled igh, ind, and ild beside the correct headings. You do not need to list the same word more than once. A mural is a painting done on a wall or a ceiling. Murals can have many purposes. In a home, a mural may be purely decorative. For example, on the wall of a child’s room an artist might create a nighttime scene, complete with nocturnal creatures, constellations, and silvery moonlight. Murals in public places often carry messages. They may serve as reminders of important issues, like the plight of the poor or racial inequality. Since the 1970s, more than 2,000 murals have been made in the public spaces of Northern Ireland. Most give insight into the political beliefs of the residents. Murals frequently decorate walls or the sides of buildings in urban areas. Sometimes they are created by a group of students with the help of a local artist. The colors are wild, and the paintings give life and energy to the city. It’s a delightful surprise, when pausing at a street corner or a stoplight, to find a story unfolding across the side of a neighborhood school or bookstore. igh:

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

ind:

____________________ ____________________

ild:

____________________ ____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 9 Phonics 29

NAME

Lesson 1.10 Vowel Sounds (oa, ow, old, oll, ost) • The letters oa and ow can make the long o sound as in toad and known. • The vowel o can make a long sound when followed by ld, ll, and st, as in fold, rolling, and most. Read each clue below. The word that matches the clue is written in bold beside it, but the letters are scrambled. Unscramble the letters and write the word on the line. Each word will contain a long vowel combination from above. 1. a fungus that forms on rotten food

odml

____________________

2. to become too big for something, like clothes

oouwgrt

____________________

3. a fee charged for using a road or bridge

ltol

____________________

4. an antonym for least

omts

____________________

5. black briquettes used to start a fire in a grill

arcchola

____________________

6. material used to cover a person’s eyes and prevent him or her from seeing

inbllddfo

____________________

7. a figure intended to frighten birds away from a farmer’s crops

ecrsarcow

____________________

8. to criticize or speak angrily to

solcd

____________________

9. a person who receives guests

thso

____________________

10. to talk about oneself with a lot of pride

bosta

____________________

11. to move up and down a computer screen

roscll

____________________

12. a bright warm light without a flame

wgol

____________________

13. a place where two roads intersect

oscrsrdsoa

____________________

14. to take a leisurely walk

rolstl

____________________

15. another word for wallet

llfobild

____________________

16. the sound a frog makes

ackro

____________________

17. a synonym for nearly

osaltm

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 30

Chapter 1 Lesson 10 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.10 Vowel Sounds (oa, ow, old, oll, ost) Read the paragraphs below. Complete each word with the correct letter combination (oa, ow, oll, old, or ost). My trip began when I was orphaned at the age of 12. It quickly became clear that I would have to make my ______n way in the world. There was work to be had at the docks, and for several days I toiled, unl______ding goods from cargo ships that arrived from exotic ports around the world. On my third day at the docks, I was appr______ched by an imposing man wearing a charcoal-gray cl______k and a fine silken scarf wrapped around his thr______t. If only I had kn______n what tragedies I would beh______ in my travels with Captain Cobb. My first few days were uneventful. Then, things suddenly changed. The weather turned c______, and I wrapped my thin c______t more tightly around my body. As I str______ed toward the warm, gl______ing embers in the wood stove, I heard the sounds of arguing drifting up from bel______ deck. I tried to h______ my breath as I crept closer to the voices. Parts of the conversation disappeared in the bl______ing winds, but I clearly heard words like treasure, gold, blindf______, takeover, and prisoner. It was obvious to me now that I had unkn______ingly cast my lot with a band of pirates. Then and there, I b______ly decided to plan my escape. I took note of where the r______boat was stored and carefully began st______ing away food from every meal. The day of my escape dawned gray and stormy. I sl______ly and quietly l______ered my rickety boat. As it touched the water, I heard a sinister chuckle and knew I would not be leaving that day.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 10 Phonics 31

NAME

Review Vowel Sounds Read the recipe below. Underline the letter combination from the pair in parentheses to correctly complete each bold word. Southwestern Salad 1 each, sw______t (ea, ee) red pepper and gr______n (ee, ie) pepper

REVIEW: CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 7–10

2 tomatoes 1 15-ounce can each black b______ns (ea, ee) and corn 1 pound ground turk______ (ey, ay) 4 ounces l______t (igh, ild) sour cream 1 package taco s______soning (ie, ea), spicy or m______ (ild, ind) 3 tablespoons of chopped parsl______ (ai, ey) 2 cups cooked pasta, such as macaroni or farfalle 1 cup l______-fat (ow, oa) shredded cheddar ch______se (ee, ea) • With the help of an adult, cook the ground turkey in a saucepan c______ted (ow, oa) with cooking spr______ (ay, ey) . • While you are waiting for the m______t (ee, ea) to cook, dice the peppers and tomatoes, and place them in a large mixing b______l (ow, oa). Rinse and dr______n (ay, ai) the beans and corn, and add them to the bowl. • When the turkey is done, remove it from the h______t (ea, ee). • M______nwhile (ie, ea), add the taco seasoning, and parsley to the sour cr______m (ei, ea) and stir thoroughly. Add the sour cream mixture, turkey, and pasta to the bowl with the vegetables. Stir until blended. • Chill the salad in the refrigerator until it is c______ (old, ost). L______d (oa, ow) ______ch (ee, ea) serving with two tablespoons of cheese. • Serve with dinner r______s (oll, oa), tortillas, or nacho chips. Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 32

Review: Lessons 7–10 Phonics

NAME

Review Vowel Sounds Read the sets of words below. Circle the two words in each set that have the same long vowel sound. 1. sustain afloat 2. uptight slingshot

sunbeam convey unwinding swimming couch

withhold

trough

attorney 5. progress suspense 6. breaded reins

beige letterhead enrolled sugarcoat decay gazelle

Read each sentence below. On the line, write the long vowel sound you hear in each bold word. If a word contains more than one long vowel sound, separate the two sounds with a slash. (Ex.: long i/long a) 1. Although the red-bellied ____________________ woodpecker has a small patch of color on its belly, the bird’s bright ____________________ red head is much harder to miss. 2. The snow ____________________ goose is mostly ____________________ white, but a less common grayish- blue ____________________ variety also exists. 3. Unlike other herons, the green ____________________ heron has a very short, stocky neck. 4. The common yellowthroat ____________________, which lives in fields ____________________ and marshes, has a very distinctive song: witchity-witchitywitchity-witchity. 5. The brown-headed cowbird is a parasitic bird, which means that it lays ____________________ its eggs in a host ____________________ bird’s nest and leaves ____________________ the babies for the other bird to raise ____________________. 6. The chimney ____________________ swift, one of the fastest flying birds, spends almost ____________________ all its time in the air and is rarely seen perching or on the ground.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 7–10 Phonics 33

REVIEW: CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 7–10

3. roaming

4. oversleep

NAME

Lesson 1.11 Vowel Sounds (oo, ew, ou, ui, ue) • The letters oo, ew, ou, ui, and ue can make the /ü/ sound, as in uproot, withdrew, regroup, cruise, and true. • The letters oo can also make the /u˙/ sound you hear in shook.

Read the definitions below. For each word in column 2, underline the letters that make the /ü/ sound and circle the letters that make the /u˙/ sound. On the line, write the letter of the word that matches each definition. 1. ______ the act of chasing something in order to catch it

a. nuisance

2. ______ occurring later than planned or scheduled

b. pursuit

3. ______ not wearing shoes

c. livelihood

4. ______ an annoyance

d. nook

5. ______ the means by which a person earns a living

e. overdue

6. ______ a small, cozy, or hidden area

f. barefoot

Read each sentence below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that has the same /ü/ or /u/ ˙ vowel sound as the word in bold. 1. On Saturday night, a large group (sour, papoose) of friends and relatives will meet at Clausen Beach for their annual clambake. 2. Mr. Krauss recruits (booth, checkbook) as many people as he can to help shuck the corn and rinse the clams in saltwater. 3. The youngest kids eagerly scour the beach for pieces of driftwood (platoon, could) that are suitable (handbook, curlicue) for the bonfire. 4. As the sun disappears below the horizon, the moonlight (fatherhood, revenue) fills the beach with a silvery glow. 5. Although everyone is a bit more subdued (cruising, clucked) than when the evening began, the mention of dessert infuses the group with energy.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 34

Chapter 1 Lesson 11 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.11 Vowel Sounds (oo, ew, ou, ui, ue) Read the review below. Complete each word with the correct letter combination (oo, ew, ou, ui, or ue).

B______k Review of By the Light of the M______n by Cameron Rickman After reading Cameron Rickman’s 2006 novel, By the Light of the Moon, there is no doubt in my mind why it was one of the nominees for the N______bery Award. Having read two of Rickman’s other books for youth, I kn______ that this book was likely to have strong characters and an unusual, interesting plot. I was not disappointed. The story opens in an airport on a gl______my aftern______n in May. The reader quickly learns that Anna, the protagonist, was adopted in early childh______d. The author does an excellent job of creating suspense at the beginning of the novel. A mystery surrounds Anna’s past, so she decides to purs______ the tr______ story of her biological family. Anna and her adoptive father are en r______te to Thailand, where Anna was born. But why is Mr. Haviland so strongly against Anna’s purs______t of her past? As they sit in the airport surrounded by s______tcases, the air between them is filled with tension. Rickman continues to build tension thr______ghout the book. He drops cl______s for the reader, but they are few and far between. He relies on the reader’s intelligence and close attention to keep up with the adventures. I believe this book is s______table for readers over ten years old. It deals with some difficult issues, like parenth______d, adoption, truth, and trust. The characters have many layers, just like real people do. I would give this book four stars—my highest rating.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 11 Phonics 35

NAME

Lesson 1.12 Vowel Sounds (au, aw, al, alk, all) • The vowel pairs au and aw can make the same sound, as in taught and seesaw. • When the vowel a is followed by l, lk, or ll, as in malt, stalk, or install, it makes the same sound as au and aw do. Read the sentences below. Circle the 14 words that contain the /ô/ sound spelled au, aw, al, all, or alk. You do not need to mark the same word twice. 1. Although many people think of fairy tales as reading material for children, they were first intended for an audience of all ages. 2. Some tales had a known author, like the Brothers Grimm, while other anonymous stories were passed down generation after generation. 3. Fairy tales of long ago often had sad endings in which awful things happened to the characters. 4. This was because some tales were meant to caution people against behaviors that could be dangerous or unwise. 5. Modern versions of fairy tales are drawn with more cheerful pictures and happier endings. 6. Cinderella, Hansel and Gretel, Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, and Jack and the Beanstalk are among the most well-known fairy tales. 7. There are few people who are unfamiliar with the little red-hooded granddaughter who travels through the woods to visit her grandma and narrowly avoids being caught by the wolf. 8. Part of the appeal of fairy tales is that the smaller, weaker underdog is often able to outsmart someone older, wiser, or brawnier. 9. Throughout the centuries, fairy tales have taught countless lessons and entertained people with their timeless, imaginative characters.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 36

Chapter 1 Lesson 12 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.12 Vowel Sounds (au, aw, al, alk, all) Read the following sentences. The bold word in each sentence is scrambled. Rearrange the letters to form a word that contains au, aw, al, alk, or all, and write it on the line. 1. Six months ago, Mr. Trasco stood at the bradlackoh ____________________ writing down our ideas. 2. “If we don’t raise some extra money, programs like labbastelk ____________________ and choir will have to be canceled,” he announced. 3. At the end of class, we voted on the best idea among the ones drawscle ____________________ across the board. 4. The day of the carnival finally arrived, and booths filled with different activities lined the edges of the school’s shaltap ____________________ parking lot. 5. The crowds were so huge that police officers were hired to stop traffic whenever people needed to use the scrowskal ____________________ in front of the school. 6. A dunking booth was edtinsall ____________________ near the entrance, and our principal, Mrs. Young, volunteered to be the first “victim.” Read each clue. Fill in the letters to complete the word that matches the clue. 1. imperfect

fl____ ____ed

2. captivated; unable to look away

enthr____ ____ ____ed

3. extremely upset

distr____ ____ght

4. a stem of a plant

st____ ____ ____

5. a short, pleasurable trip

j____ ____nt

6. spreading out in a disorderly way

spr____ ____ling

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 12 Phonics 37

NAME

Lesson 1.13 Vowel Diphthongs When two vowel sounds come together and create a new sound, the combination they form is called a diphthong (dip thông). • The diphthongs oi, as in moist, and oy, as in oyster, make the same sound. Read each description below. Choose the word from the box that matches the clue. Write it on the line, and circle the diphthong. joyfulness

employer

annoy

viewpoint

loyalty

Des Moines

hoist

1. I am a company or person for whom others work. Some might call me the boss.

____________________

2. I am a verb that means to lift or pull up. You could use me in this sentence: The girls helped their dad _____ the sails.

____________________

3. The word faithfulness is a synonym for me. I describe a quality that good friends or family members show for one another. ____________________ 4. Founded in 1843, I am Iowa’s capital city.

____________________

5. I am a feeling of great happiness or pleasure.

____________________

6. I am another word for bother or irritate.

____________________

7. I am a person’s perspective or the way he or she sees things. ____________________ Read the headlines below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that has the same vowel sound as the bold word or words. 1.

Adventurer Begins Voyage Around the World––by Balloon! (Moscow, toil)

2.

Fans Disappointed When Singer Jett Mullin Cancels World Tour (rebound, convoy)

3.

Hurricane Chloe Destroys 42 Homes Along Florida Coast (prowl, moisture)

4.

Britain’s Royal Family to Visit the States and Meet with President (spoiled, moan)

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 38

Chapter 1 Lesson 13 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.13 Vowel Diphthongs • The diphthongs ou, as in tryout, and ow, as in town, make the same sound. Read the paragraphs below. Underline the eight words that contain the /ou/ sound spelled ou. Circle the seven words that contain the /ou/ sound spelled ow. You do not need to mark the same word more than once. What kinds of things do you read on the computer? Have you ever tried reading an e-book, or electronic book? What about a newspaper article or your favorite magazine? For many people, it’s difficult to spend long amounts of time in front of a computer screen. They would rather find a more comfortable place in the house to read, like a cozy chair or the couch. A laptop computer is portable, but it is still bulkier than a magazine or small book. It’s also hard for someone reading in a car or outdoors to see the screen in bright light. Several renowned companies on the cutting edge of technology are now working on some ideas that would forever change the way people read. How does the idea of electronic paper sound to you? It’s difficult to explain exactly how this concept works. The basic idea, though, is that the battery-powered paper is filled with tiny capsules. Each capsule contains black and white particles that carry an electric charge. Using the electricity in each capsule, a computer program determines whether the black or white particles are allowed to come to the surface of the paper. The black particles form patterns that create letters, symbols, and words. When you “turn the page,” different particles rise to the surface and form the words and pictures on the next page of the book or magazine. Although it seems like something that might be found in a science fiction novel, it’s possible that in the future a single piece of electronic paper could somehow hold the contents of an entire book. The countdown to the books of the future has begun.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 13 Phonics 39

NAME

Review Vowel Sounds and Diphthongs Read the clues below. On the line, write the word from the box that matches the clue and has the sound listed in parentheses. Then, find each word in the word search puzzle. Words may be written forward, backward, or diagonally.

REVIEW: CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 11–13

squall oyster compound true scowl shook awkward whirlpool suitable rejoice 1. a word that is made of two shorter words (/ou/)

____________________

2. to celebrate with great happiness (/oi/)

____________________

3. a current of water that rotates very quickly (/ü/)

____________________

4. appropriate (/ü/)

____________________

5. clumsy; not graceful (/ô/)

____________________

6. the past tense of the verb shake (/u˙/)

____________________

7. to glare or frown (/ou/)

____________________

8. a short, violent storm with wind and rain or snow (/ô/)

____________________

9. an edible shellfish that sometimes contains pearls (/oi/)

____________________

10. not false (/ü/)

____________________

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Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 40

Review: Lessons 11–13 Phonics

NAME

Review Vowel Sounds and Diphthongs Read the paragraphs below. Underline the letter combination in parentheses that shares a vowel sound found in the bold word. When people think of baseball (au, oa), the legendary hitter Babe Ruth is often the first player to come to mind. By most accounts (oi, ow), he is the greatest athlete in the history of the game. Ruth was one of the first five players elected to the Baseball Hall (aw, ou) of Fame. Today, his autograph (all, ou) can be worth thousands (ow, ui) of

during the 1920s and 30s. The fans that turned out (ow, au) to watch the Bambino play were rarely disappointed (ou, oy) by the performance they saw (au, ou). Babe Ruth, born George Herman Ruth in 1895, was known for being mischievous as a boy (ew, oi). Because his parents were concerned about (ow, oo) his behavior, they sent him to a strict school (aw, ue). It was there that young George was taught (all, ou) the ins and outs of baseball and developed a great enjoyment (oi, ow) for playing the game. In 1914, Ruth was recruited (ew, oi) to join (ou, oy) the minor league Baltimore Orioles. During the next few years, he played for the Boston Red Sox where he excelled as a pitcher. By 1917, he began pitching less and spending more time in the outfield (ow, ui). He soon (oy, ew) surprised many people when he proved he was also (all, ou) talented as a hitter and outfielder. After several years, Ruth was traded to the New York Yankees. During his first year in New York, Ruth hit 54 home runs, breaking his record of 29 home runs in a season. Throughout his career with the Yankees, Ruth continued to set records and astound (ow, aw) people with his talent. People around (ue, ow) the world mourned Ruth’s loss when he died in 1948, but they were grateful for all (au, ou) that he had given to America’s favorite sport.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 11–13 Phonics 41

REVIEW: CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 11–13

dollars. His fame helped baseball zoom (ue, oy) to new (ow, oo) heights of popularity

NAME

Lesson 1.14 The Schwa Sound The schwa sound, represented by the symbol e, is the /uh/ sound you hear at the beginning of the word allow. • The vowels a, e, i, o, and u can all make the schwa sound, as in around, barrel, pencil, major, and cactus. • Sometimes, vowel pairs can also make the schwa sound, as in relation and cautious. e

Read each group of words below. Circle the word in each group that contains the schwa sound. Use a dictionary if you need help with pronunciation. 1. limber

recede

catch

2. pause

dispel

cardinal

3. graphic

scallop

wheezing

4. passion

passage

bypass

5. dairy

diary

radar

On the line, rewrite each bold word below using the symbol for a schwa (e) in place of the letter or letters that make the schwa sound. e

1. My friend took second place in the regional spelling bee.

____________________

2. The fresh aroma of baked bread drifted from the kitchen.

____________________

3. With each tug of the rope and swing of the axe, the mountaineer inched her way slowly toward the summit.

____________________

4. A floral bouquet was placed at the center of each table at the reception.

____________________

5. Malia’s ancestors came to Hawaii hundreds of years ago.

____________________

6. The koala slowly ate eucalyptus leaves.

____________________

7. No one knows for sure how many people it took to build the Egyptian pyramids.

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 42

Chapter 1 Lesson 14 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.14 The Schwa Sound Read the following paragraphs. For each word in bold, circle the vowel or vowels that make the schwa sound. Throughout history, our nation and its citizens have had to endure a number of difficult and trying moments. Few events were as sad as the assassinations of presidents Abraham Lincoln and John F. Kennedy. Although they are not discussed as often, the deaths of James Garfield and William McKinley were equally shocking to the Americans of their time. President James Garfield took office on March 4, 1881. Only four months later, on July 2, Garfield was walking through a Washington, D.C., railroad station when Charles J. Guiteau shot him. Garfield lived for another 80 days, but medical knowledge during that time was limited. On September 19, President Garfield passed away. He had been president for only six and a half months. President William McKinley began his second term in March 1901. Due to America’s victory in the Spanish-American War, McKinley had easily defeated William Jennings Bryan in the previous fall’s election. In September 1901, McKinley traveled to Buffalo, New York, to give a speech at the Pan-American Exposition. It was at this World’s Fair that tragedy would strike. On September 6, McKinley stood at the front of a line of people waiting to shake the president’s hand. Slowly, Leon Czolgosz made his way through the line. Czolgosz was an anarchist—someone who believes that all forms of government are bad and should be abolished. Although many anarchists were peaceful, others performed violent acts. When Czolgosz reached the front of the line, he shot McKinley and was immediately taken into custody. McKinley was rushed to the hospital in an ambulance, making him the first president to ride in an automobile. Sadly, McKinley died of his wounds eight days later.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 14 Phonics 43

NAME

Lesson 1.14 The Schwa Sound Many words that end in a consonant plus le, al, or el contain the schwa sound. vocal (vocel)

label (label) e

e

rumble (rumbel) e

Read the sentences below. In some of the words, the schwa symbol (e) has replaced vowels that make the schwa sound. On the line, rewrite these words with their correct spellings. e

1. The tropicel ____________________ Amazonian rain forest stretches across more than a billion acres of land. e

2. More than two million species of insects and two thousand types of birds and mammels ____________________ live in the region. e

3. Environmentel ____________________ groups around the world are working to protect the Amazon rain forest, a fifth of which has already been lost. e

4. Locel ____________________ species of plants and animels ____________________ that do not exist anywhere else in the world are in danger of becoming extinct. e

e

5. The Amazon is shared by nine South American countries that benefit from the materiels ____________________ the forest produces, as well as from the tourists who e

travel ____________________ to see this place of great beauty. e

6. Some conservation programs allow peopel ____________________ to buy an acre of e

jungel ____________________ land in order to keep it safe from harm. e

7. Six-foot-wide water lilies with thin, delicate petels ____________________ can be found floating along the lakes and rivers of the Amazon. e

8. The tapir, which looks like some sort of prehistoric animal, has a nose that resembels ____________________ an elephant’s trunk. e

9. Although the anaconda is not poisonous, its large size and strong muscels e

____________________ allow it to tackel ____________________ and feed on creatures as large as cows. e

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 44

Chapter 1 Lesson 14 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.14 The Schwa Sound The schwa sound occurs in unstressed syllables. For example, in the word ba’· sin the first syllable is stressed. The second syllable contains the schwa sound. In the following words, the vowel that makes the /e/ sound is set in bold. Notice how it appears only in unstressed syllables. e

en’·e·my

cas·sette’

nui’·sance

ser’·mon

pa·go’·da

Read each definition and the pronunciation beside it. On the line, write the word. 1. a tradition or habit

cus’·tem

____________________

2. materials made of baked clay

ce·ram’·ics ____________________

3. relating to mail service or post offices

po’·stel

4. a person who travels in outer space

as’·tre·not’ ____________________

5. a married male

hus’·bend ____________________

e

e

____________________

e

e

e

Read the sentences below. Underline the stressed syllable or syllables in each bold word, and circle the vowel or vowels that make the schwa sound. 1. In 1910, Robert Baden-Powell founded the Girl Guides of Great Britain as a coun·ter·part to the group for boys he began in 1908. 2. In 1912, Juliette Low started the Girl Scouts, a sim·i·lar organization in the United States. 3. The Girl Scouts and Girl Guides both fo·cus on leadership, char·ac·ter, community, outdoor activities, and service. 4. In A·mer·i·ca, the five age groups are called the Daisies, Brownies, Juniors, Ca·dettes, and Seniors. 5. Today, there are nearly 10 mil·lion members in 144 countries.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 14 Phonics 45

NAME

Lesson 1.15 The Sounds of y • The letter y can make the /y/ sound you hear in younger. • It can make the long i sound, as in hyena and sly. • The letter y can make the long e sound, as in tricky. • In the middle of a word, y can make the short i sound, as in myth. Read each sentence. Circle the word below the sentence that has the same sound of y as the bold word. 1. The yak is a member of the bovine family, as are bison and cattle. yacht

policy

python

mysterious

2. Yaks are found in Tibet and mountainous areas of central Asia. Egypt

occupy

geometry

yonder

3. Typical uses for yaks include milk, meat, cheese, and fiber. petrifying

yesterday

rhythm

yowled

4. The yak’s soft, shaggy fur can be turned into yarn. pastry

nylon

Plymouth

barnyard

5. The yak’s fur coat can keep it warm and dry, even at temperatures as low as 40 degrees below zero. yanked

pygmy

firefly

dictionary

6. Yaks are often used as pack animals and can transport heavy loads through the mountains. cycle

gymnasium

yodel

enemy

7. Trees are scarce in parts of Tibet, so dried yak dung is a useful type of fuel. yolk

crypt

angrily

myself

8. Yaks have more red blood cells than cattle do, which helps them better absorb oxygen from the thin mountain air. yeast

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 46

mythical

horrify

extremely

Chapter 1 Lesson 15 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.15 The Sounds of y Read the sentences below. On the line beside each bold word, write the sound y makes in the word (long i, short i, y, or long e). Hint: Some words may contain more than one sound of y. 1. Sanjana has been told repeatedly ____________________ that she is musically ____________________ inclined, so she is applying ____________________ to the famous Juilliard School in New York ____________________ City. 2. Thirteen-year-old ____________________ Ramon, who is going to become a stunt double someday, has already been skydiving ____________________, parasailing, and bungee jumping. 3. When Jenna graduates from the International Culinary ____________________ Institute, she plans to open a bakery ____________________ in Yorkshire ____________________, England. 4. Kyle ____________________ reads approximately ____________________ two mystery ____________________ novels a week and has nearly completed writing the first mystery book of his career. 5. Dana has a small chemistry ____________________ lab set up in one corner of her bedroom, but she longs for the day when she’ll have access to a real laboratory ____________________. Read the sets of words below. Circle the two words in each set in which y makes the same sound. 1. anchovy amplifying 2. hyphen physician 3. spying youth

nymph icy yesterday Olympian hieroglyphics magnify

4. rhyming

years

stingy

yucca

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

5. gypped defy 6. shyest financially 7. particularly hyena 8. yonder canyon

backyard yield everything yours yellow-jacket dying ladybug mysterious Chapter 1 Lesson 15 Phonics 47

NAME

Lesson 1.16 R-Controlled Vowels (ar, er, ir, or, ur) When the letter r follows a vowel, it changes the vowel’s sound. • The letters ar make the sound you hear in regard. • The letters or make the sound you hear in thorn. • The letters er, ir, and ur make the same sound, as in nerve, twirl, and urge. Read the titles and author names in the list below. Circle each word that contains an r-controlled vowel. Ms. Alvarez’s 6th Grade Reading List • Red Scarf Girl by Ji-Li Jiang • Monster by Walter Dean Myers • North to Freedom by Anne Holm • The Watsons Go to Birmingham—1963 by Christopher Paul Curtis • The True Confessions of Charlotte Doyle by Avi • Summer of My German Soldier by Bette Green • Morning Girl by Michael Dorris • The Iceberg Hermit by Arthur Roth • M. C. Higgins the Great by Virginia Hamilton • House of Sports by M. Russo • Ninjas, Piranhas, and Galileo by Greg Leitich Smith • The Borning Room by Paul Fleischman • The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett • Island (Survival, Book Two) by Gordon Korman On the lines below, write a book title and author for each r-controlled vowel sound. You can find the names and titles at a library or in an online catalog. ar: __________________________________________________________________________________ er: __________________________________________________________________________________ ur: __________________________________________________________________________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 48

Chapter 1 Lesson 16 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.16 R-Controlled Vowels (ar, er, ir, or, ur) Read the diary entry below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that has the same r-controlled vowel sound as the bold word.

Dear Diary, The last couple of weeks have been among the most interesting (smirk, coastguard) of my life. I can’t believe how much I’ve learned in such a short (converge, seashore) time. My family arrived at Camp Frontier unsure (leotard, swerve) of what to expect. We knew that we would be taught some nature (mirth, uniform) and survival (midterm, hornet) skills. I was also eager to learn how past generations (guitar, sunburn) lived off the land. Last week, we harvested (bizarre, nervous) vegetables and berries from the garden (blurt, lifeguard). Cassie and I spent all day in the hot kitchen canning and preserving (lurking, junkyard) everything so that we would have enough provisions for the coming winter (distort, emerge). It was steamy, tedious work, but in the end, we had jar (bookmark, concerned) after jar of blackberry jam, peaches, beans, tomatoes, and peppers (transform, purse). I’ve also milked the cows and goats in the barn every morning (purge, carnivore) just after sunrise. I’ve churned (adverb, bombard) butter by hand from the cows’ sweet cream, I can start a fire with a piece of flint and some twigs, and I can identify at least 15 birds (suburb, newborn) just by hearing their calls. Not too bad for a city girl (splurge, charming), huh? I’ve met people from all over the country—everywhere from Oregon (trademark, affordable) to Arkansas (squirted, postmark) to Vermont (passport, quirky). We’ve all learned so much from observing (thirst, Denmark) each other. I feel like a strong community has been formed (nurse, discord) here. It will feel strange to return (proverb, lard) to modern (scorch, whirl) life, but I know that we’ll take with us all the skills we’ve learned. Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 16 Phonics 49

NAME

Lesson 1.17 More r-Controlled Vowels (air, are, ear, eer) • The letters air and are can make the same sound, as in repair and prepare. • The letters ear and eer can make the same sound, as in appear and steer. The letters ear can also make the sound you hear in swear. Read the definitions below. On the line, write the word from the box that matches each definition, and circle the r-controlled vowel letter combination. smear

solitaire

gear

beware

questionnaire

rare

steer

volunteer

1. a person who offers to do something, often for free

____________________

2. a list of questions used for gathering information

____________________

3. to guide a vehicle using a wheel

____________________

4. not common; something that doesn’t occur often

____________________

5. to spread a sticky or greasy material

____________________

6. a game of cards one plays alone

____________________

7. equipment

____________________

8. to be cautious of something

____________________

Read each sentence below. On the line, write the letter combination (air, are, eer, or ear) that correctly completes each bold word. 1. Bill Gates is the owner of the largest softw__________ company in the world. 2. Not only is he a billion__________e, but he is also the richest person in the world. 3. Even at a young age, Gates had a fl__________ for math and science. 4. Throughout his car__________, Gates has had many challenges. 5. Bill Gates and his wife, Melinda, are aw__________ of how fortunate they are, so each y__________ they sh__________ their wealth by donating millions of dollars to charity.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 50

Chapter 1 Lesson 17 Phonics

NAME

Lesson 1.17 More r-Controlled Vowels (air, are, ear, eer) Read the sentences below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that has the same r-controlled vowel sound as the bold word beside it. 1. It is unclear (swear, disappear) exactly how Ask a Stupid Question Day started, but it was probably begun by teachers who wanted students to feel comfortable asking anything. 2. Evoloterra, celebrated on July 20, marks the day when human beings first dared (millionaire, speared) to land on the moon. 3. April 1, also known as April Fools’ Day, is a day to beware (reindeer, solitaire) of any tricksters you might know. 4. Have you ever heard of National Catfish Day? It has been celebrated on June 25 every year (career, pears) since 1987. 5. October 15, White Cane Safety Day, celebrates the achievements of people who are visually impaired (shear, wearable). 6. Wright Brothers’ Day commemorates the fearless (outerwear, auctioneer) first flight of Wilbur and Orville Wright on December 17, 1903. 7. Boxing Day, celebrated in Britain on December 26, is often marked by volunteers (smeared, wheelchair) who donate gifts or money to charities. 8. Earth Day, celebrated on April 22, helps bring awareness (bear, Shakespeare) to important environmental issues. Read each set of words below. Underline the word that has a different r-controlled vowel sound than the rest of the words in the set. 1. fairly

clearing

musketeer

appearance

2. questionnaire

underwear

nearly

despair

3. warfare

peer

affair

wearing

4. threadbare

spearhead

engineering

steer

5. snare

millionaire

nightmare

dearest

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 17 Phonics 51

NAME

Review Schwa, the Sounds of y, and r-controlled Vowels For each bold word, underline the stressed syllable, and circle the vowel or vowels that make the schwa sound. Too many an·i·mals in the world don’t have a place to call home or peo·ple to protect them. Thou·sands of these animals get a sec·ond chance at a spec·ial place

REVIEW: CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 14–17

called Best Friends Animal Sanctuary, located in Kanab, Utah. The motto of Best Friends is “No more homeless pets.” Today, more than 1,500 animals live at the sanctuary. There are plenty of com·mon house pets, like cats and dogs, but Best Friends is also home to horses, pigs, goats, owls, rabbits, and doz·ens of other va·ri·e·ties of critters. Some are sick, and many were a·ban·doned or a·bused. Best Friends wel·comes all animals, regardless of their history. Once an animal enters the sanctuary, it will be treated with kindness and respect. Hundreds of animals find good homes through the ef·forts of Best Friends. The animals that don’t find new families are still guaranteed a safe and happy place to live forever. Best Friends works with groups all a·round the country to make the lives of animals better. They educate people about the importance of spaying and neutering pets. They also have the best interests of animals in mind when a crisis oc·curs. There’s no doubt that the furry and feathered crea·tures of the world are lucky to have the folks at Best Friends looking out for them. On the line, write the sound y makes in each bold word (long i, short i, y, or long e). Circle the word beside it that contains the same sound. 1. typical

____________________

graciously

rhythm

nylon

2. deny

____________________

policy

gypsy

magnify

3. canyon

____________________

colony

yowl

mystery

4. terribly

____________________

stingy

Egypt

gymnast

5. crypt

____________________

occupy

yodel

physics

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 52

Review: Lessons 14–17 Phonics

NAME

Review Schwa, the Sounds of y, and r-controlled Vowels Read the paragraphs below. Write each bold word beside the heading that contains the same r-controlled vowel sound.

carpet: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ turning: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ orchid:

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

fairly:

____________________ ____________________

clear:

____________________ ____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 14–17 Phonics 53

REVIEW: CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 14–17

Poetry can take many forms. It can be serious or humorous. Sometimes it rhymes, and sometimes there is a particular rhythm or beat. Because most poems are relatively short, words must be chosen carefully. Meaning is important because a poem often conveys a feeling or an experience. But the sound of the language is equally important. Words in a poem should fit together like puzzle pieces. People who have made a career of writing poetry often give similar sorts of advice to young poets. They say that brainstorming is a good place to start. Instead of actively thinking of topics for a poem, first let your mind wander. Allow the thoughts to swirl around in your head. What moves you or makes you laugh? Where do you find beauty? What makes you feel concerned or lonely? When do you feel so happy your heart could burst? Reading the work of other poets and becoming familiar with the language of poetry can help you become more comfortable using it and sharing it. Remember, there are as many different styles of poetry as there are poets. Check out the poetry of authors like William Shakespeare, Naomi Shihab Nye, Robert Frost, Shel Silverstein, and Karla Kuskin. Each of these poets has a unique voice, just as you do. What kind of poetry speaks to you?

NAME

Lesson 2.1 Base Words and Endings A base word is a word without endings added to it. • Double the consonant before adding ed or ing to a base word that has a short vowel sound and ends in a consonant.(snap, snapped, snapping) • If a base word ends with e, drop the e before adding ed or ing. (excite, excited, exciting) • If a base word ends with y, change the y to i before adding ed. Do not change the y before adding ing. (occupy, occupied, occupying) Fill in the blanks in the chart below. Base Word

Add ed

____________________

____________________

cherishing

struggle

____________________

____________________

____________________

formatted

____________________

scribble

____________________

____________________

enforce

____________________

____________________

____________________

identified

____________________

____________________

untied

____________________

Add ing

On the line, write the base word for each word in bold. 1. The chef’s hands were covered in food after she finished demonstrating ____________________ to the class how to properly mix the ingredients. 2. Max accompanied ____________________ Basir to his audition on Monday. 3. A road crew is creating ____________________ a huge, muddy mess on our block while they repair the street. Phonics Connection Circle the words in the chart in which y makes the long i sound.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 54

Chapter 2 Lesson 1 Word Structure

NAME

Lesson 2.1 Base Words and Endings Adding the endings -s or -es to base words forms new words. • Adding s to the end of some verbs changes their form. Oliver and Lindsay cheer. Lindsay cheers. • If a verb ends with y, change the y to i and add es. The mice scurry. The mouse scurries. • If a verb ends with s, sh, ch, x, or z, add es. The students rush. The student rushes. Circle the words in parentheses that correctly complete the sentences below. CFL (mean, means, meanes) compact fluorescent lamp. These special bulbs (fit, fits, fites) into the normal sockets of lamps and light fixtures. A CFL bulb (produce, produces) the same light as a regular bulb, but it (use, uses) a lot less energy. In fact, if you (switch, switchs, switches) to using CFL bulbs, you’ll (save, saves) four times as much energy. CFL bulbs also (burn, burns, burnes) ten times as long, so you (purchase, purchases) them less often. Ken Luna (teach, teachs, teaches) science to eighth graders in North Babylon, New York. He (wish, wishs, wishes) everyone would trade in their old-fashioned bulbs for CFLs. Mr. Luna (encourage, encourages) all of his students to use at least one CFL at home. To show them how dedicated he is to this plan, Mr. Luna (pass, passes) out a free bulb to each member of his class. In his hometown of North Babylon, Mr. Luna’s plan grew so popular that a hardware store donated 5,500 bulbs, one for each student in the city. This simple change (mean, means, meanes) that North Babylon residents will (save, saves) half a million dollars in energy costs each year! If every household in the U.S. would (exchange, exchanges) just five regular light bulbs for CFL bulbs, the reduction in energy use and pollution would be like removing eight million cars from the nation’s roads for one year!

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 2 Lesson 1 Word Structure 55

NAME

Lesson 2.2 Comparative Endings The comparative endings -er and -est change the meanings of base words. • Add er to mean more when comparing two things. Add est to mean most when comparing three or more things. deepest = most deep deeper = more deep • For words that end in e, drop the e and add er or est. For words that end in a consonant plus y, change the y to i before adding er or est. early, earlier, earliest close, closer, closest • For words that have a short vowel sound and end in a consonant, double the consonant before adding er or est. thin, thinner, thinnest Fill in the blanks below with the correct form of the comparative word. Base Word

Add er

Add est

shiny

____________________

____________________

____________________

rarer

____________________

____________________

____________________

reddest

angry

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

lightest

____________________

____________________

loveliest

free

____________________

____________________

____________________

shallower

____________________

slim

____________________

____________________

strange

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

roughest

____________________

sleepier

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 56

Chapter 2 Lesson 2 Word Structure

NAME

Lesson 2.2 Comparative Endings Some comparisons are made by adding the word more or most in front of the adjective instead of adding an ending. pleasant, more pleasant

valuable, most valuable

Read the paragraphs below. On the line, write the correct comparative form of the word in parentheses. As the Fourth of July approaches each summer, Dante becomes the (excited) ____________________ person in his family. Independence Day is the day Dante was born, and he loves the combined celebration. The Carroses’ always pack their wagon with an old quilt and a picnic to take to the park. The wheels of the old red wagon grow (squeaky) ____________________ every year, but no one seems to care. The year Dante turned nine was the (frustrating) ____________________ birthday of his life. One of the wheels snapped off the wagon, pasta salad scattered all over the sidewalk, and Dante’s little sister spilled juice on the quilt. Luckily, the rest of Dante’s birthday celebrations have gone a bit (smoothly) ____________________. Every year, the Carros family gets into a good-natured argument as they pull the wagon eight blocks to Freedom Park. Mr. Carros and Dante argue that the (interesting) ____________________ view of the fireworks is from Dobbin Hill. Mrs. Carros tries to convince the family to leave (early) ____________________ than usual so that they can find seats for the show in the gazebo. That’s where the (popular) ____________________ seats are, but Grandma Louise thinks it’s (safe) ____________________ to watch fireworks from a distance. After all the debate, the Carroses end up spreading their quilt on the grassy slope of a hill, just like they do every year.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 2 Lesson 2 Word Structure 57

NAME

Review Base Words and Endings Read the paragraphs below. Add ed or ing to each word in parentheses, and write the new word on the line. The form of the word you choose should make sense in the sentence. When you hear the words star-spangled banner, the song by Francis Scott Key probably begins (play) ____________________ in your mind. However, most people know

REVIEW: CHAPTER 2 LESSONS 1–2

little about the flag that (inspire) ____________________ the famous song. In 1813, Major George Armistead took over command of Fort McHenry in Baltimore, Maryland. He (hire) ____________________ a woman (name) ____________________ Mary Pickersgill to sew two flags. The larger of the flags (measure) ____________________ 30 by 42 feet when it was (complete) ____________________. Although Mary had some help from her daughter, nieces, and a servant, (sew) ____________________ the flag was literally an enormous job. (The open flag would cover about half of a tennis court!) Even so, the talented seamstress (finish) ____________________ the job in about two months. The Star Spangled Banner had 15 stars and 15 stripes and cost $405.90. The smaller storm flag had been (fly) ____________________ on the evening of September 13, 1814, as the British (try) ____________________ to take Fort McHenry. The American soldiers fought hard, bravely (defend) ____________________ the city of Baltimore, and the British troops finally withdrew. In the morning, the large Star Spangled Banner replaced the storm flag and could be seen for miles. It (wave) ____________________ proudly and (announce) ____________________ the American victory.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 58

Review: Lessons 1–2 Word Structure

NAME

Review Base Words and Endings Read each 6th-grade candidate’s campaign slogans. Underline the word or words from the set in parentheses that correctly complete the sentences. Danny Calbert for President 2008! • Your choice couldn’t be (easier, easiest). Vote for Calbert for class president, and you’ll be sure you did the right thing. REVIEW: CHAPTER 2 LESSONS 1–2

• Want a class president who knows how to make you laugh? Vote for Danny Calbert: he’s the (funnyest, funniest) candidate in ‘08! • Danny promises to bring the (later, latest) technology to our classrooms as president. Don’t get left behind—vote for Danny! Austin Young: Your Voice in Student Politics • Are you looking for a (kindest, kinder), (gentler, gentleer) student government? Austin is the (most compassionate, compassionatest) candidate for president, but he’s also the (tougher, toughest). • Austin Young: Straight A’s two years in a row. Don’t you want the (smartest, most smart) candidate working for you? • Austin has the (originalest, most original) ideas for 2008. A vote for Austin is a vote for a (brightest, brighter) future. Cristina Wang—Leadership and Experience • Cristina may be (youngest, younger) than the competition, but no one else has her experience and know-how in student government. • Vote Cristina, your (most trustworthy, trustworthiest) choice for president, and let your voice be heard. • Want (healthiest, healthier) choices in the cafeteria, (more interesting, intrestinger) field trips, and a (biger, bigger) gym? Elect Cristina Wang! Next to each word below, write its base word. dripping

__________________ relaxes

__________________ polishes __________________

occupying__________________ dragged __________________ empties __________________ Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 1–2 Word Structure 59

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Lesson 2.3 Plurals Most plural words are formed by adding s to the end of a word. elevator, elevators workbook, workbooks • If a noun ends in sh, ch, s, or x, add es. • If a noun ends with a consonant and y, drop the y and add ies. • Form the plural of most words that end in f by just adding s. For some words that end in f or fe, change the f or fe to v and add es.

dress, dresses family, families cliff, cliffs knife, knives

On the lines below, write the correct plural of each word in parentheses. If you live in the Southeast, you may have noticed an interesting plant covering ____________________ (tree) and ____________________ (bush), ____________________ (house), and telephone ____________________ (pole). In ____________________ (story) passed down through the generations, kudzu is known as the mile-a-minute vine, the foot-a-night vine, and the vine that ate the South. Originally, it grew only in the southern parts of Asian ____________________ (country), like China and Japan. In 1876, it was brought to America as an ornamental plant. People liked the dark green ____________________ (leaf) and fragrant ____________________ (bloom). During the Depression, ____________________ (mass) of kudzu ____________________ (vine) were planted to help prevent soil erosion. The problem was that the ____________________ (condition) were too perfect in the South. The vines covered the ____________________ (branch) of trees, ____________________ (bridge), buildings, ____________________ (roof)—anything that didn’t move. When the plants were brought to the U.S., none of their natural ____________________ (enemy) came along. During the summer, kudzu can grow as much as a foot a day! It cuts short the ____________________ (life) of whatever plants or trees it covers. It’s no surprise that in 1953, the Department of Agriculture stopped recommending its use. Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 60

Chapter 2 Lesson 3 Word Structure

NAME

Lesson 2.3 Plurals • Form the plural of a word that ends with a vowel plus o by adding s. zoo, zoos video, videos • Form the plural of a word that ends with a consonant and o by adding es. halo, haloes cargo, cargoes • Some words, such as photo, piano, and rhino, do not follow this pattern. Just add s to make their plurals. Use a dictionary to check plural spellings. Choose the word from the box that matches each clue below and write it on the line. Then, find the plural form of the word in the word search puzzle. pistachio

solo

flamingo

tomato

burrito

pueblo

kangaroo

1. a juicy red fruit that is usually used as a vegetable

____________________

2. an Australian animal that carries its young in a pouch

____________________

3. a light green edible nut

____________________

4. a tortilla stuffed with meat, rice, beans, and cheese

____________________

5. a bright pink tropical bird that has long, skinny legs

____________________

6. to do something alone

____________________

7. a Native American village or community of the Southwest

____________________

p

r

m

a

a

h

u

r

u

p

n

f

s

g

n

i

b

d

p

l

b

u

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t

o

s

g

s

s

e

o

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l

f

w

q

l

s

p

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v

f

u

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o

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k

c

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p

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k

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k

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q

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 2 Lesson 3 Word Structure 61

NAME

Lesson 2.4 Irregular Plurals Some words have irregular plural forms. child, children foot, feet die, dice goose, geese ox, oxen woman, women man, men mouse, mice tooth, teeth parenthesis, parentheses oasis, oases The singular and plural forms of the following words are the same: deer, fish, moose, sheep, trout, salmon, wheat, series, traffic, and species. Read the sentences below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that correctly completes each sentence. 1. Seven (children, child) in Mohammed’s class live in his neighborhood. 2. How many (trouts, trout) did you catch last weekend? 3. The tallest player for the Valley Ridge Pistons is nearly six (feet, foots) tall, and she is only 13 years old. 4. The exhausted traveler thought he saw an (oasis, oases) in the desert, but it turned out to be only an illusion. 5. Do you know how many (species, specieses) of frogs the researchers discovered in the rain forest? 6. After wearing braces for three years, Kiara’s (teeths, teeth) are nearly perfect. 7. A small gray (mice, mouse) with velvety fur and pink ears scurried across the kitchen floor. 8. The three (deer, deers) stood motionless in the woods, waiting for the intruder to pass. 9. The naturalist knew how to set the (geese’s, goose’s) broken wing so that it would heal properly.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 62

Chapter 2 Lesson 4 Word Structure

NAME

Lesson 2.4 Irregular Plurals Ms. Mihocik’s class is having a competition to see who can write the most creative or intriguing first line to a story. Read the students’ entries below. Then, write a new first line using the plural form of each bold word. 1. By the time the snow reached the windows of Anna’s cabin, she knew she had no choice—she’d have to remove the infected tooth herself. ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. As Mr. Wales drove home from work, he noticed that his car was the only car headed east, and that the rest of the traffic sped quickly away from the city. ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. The young woman stared at the mirror in disbelief, unable to recognize a single feature of her face. ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Eduardo yanked as hard as he could on the thin, taut line and began reeling in what he assumed was just a very large fish. ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. The anxious fans who filled the stadium waited in silence to see if the star forward would be able to play on her injured foot. ________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Kate could see clouds of steam rising from the moose’s nostrils as she carefully backed away from the animal’s glinting eyes and bony antlers. ________________________________________________________________________________ Phonics Connection 1. On the lines, write the bold words from above that contain a digraph. ____________________

____________________

2. Which two bold words contain the /ü/ sound? ____________________ ____________________ Which word contains the /u˙/ sound? ____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 2 Lesson 4 Word Structure 63

NAME

Lesson 2.5 Possessives Form a possessive, or word that shows ownership, by adding an apostrophe (’) and an s to the end of a word. Words that end in s are treated the same way. Jacob’s bedroom

Jess’s team

To form a plural possessive, add an apostrophe to the end of a plural word. the cars’ headlights

the babies’ pacifiers

If a plural word does not end in s, add an apostrophe plus s. the sheep’s wool

the women’s goal

Read the paragraphs below. If the bold word is plural, write PL on the line. If it is singular possessive, write SP. If it is plural possessive, write PP. Most people are familiar with the Olympic Games, but few know much about the Paralympic Games. They are intended for people with physical disabilities ______, and the competitors’ ______ determination and skills are amazing to witness. The first competitions were London’s ______ Stoke Mandeville Games, held in 1948 for veterans of World War II. As a doctor, Ludwig Guttmann’s ______ purpose in founding the event was to give people with spinal cord injuries a chance to develop physically and increase their self-confidence. Other countries ______ joined the competition during the next few years, and in 1960, the first Paralympics were held in Rome. Today, a host city’s ______ bid for the Olympic Games includes the Paralympics, which use the same facilities ______ and take place three weeks after the close of the Olympics. The sports ______ include swimming, sailing, basketball, fencing, wheelchair rugby, volleyball, wheelchair tennis, judo, alpine skiing, and sledge hockey, among many others. The sports’ ______ rules may be slightly modified to fit a particular disability, but generally, there are not a great number of differences.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 64

Chapter 2 Lesson 5 Word Structure

NAME

Lesson 2.5 Possessives Read the sentences below. On the line, write the possessive form of each word in parentheses. 1. March is National (Women) ____________________ History Month. 2. The (event) ____________________ goal is to bring awareness to women’s issues and celebrate the achievements of women in many different fields. 3. Maya (Angelou) ____________________ famous book I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings was published in 1970. 4. Rachel Carson, a biologist and nature writer, wrote a book that brought the (world) ____________________ attention to the dangers of a chemical called DDT. 5. Maya Lin, a sculptor and architect, may be best known for submitting the winning design for the Vietnam (Veterans) ____________________ Memorial in Washington, D.C. 6. Wilma Mankiller, the Cherokee (Nation) ____________________ Chief from 1985 to 1995, was the first woman to lead a large Native American tribe. 7. Of all the space (shuttles) ____________________ commanders, only one has been a woman: Eileen Collins. Rewrite each phrase below as a possessive. 1. the beat of the drums __________________________________________________________ 2. the lyrics of the song __________________________________________________________ 3. the solo of the guitarist ________________________________________________________ 4. the energy of the musicians ____________________________________________________ 5. the melody of the keyboard ____________________________________________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 2 Lesson 5 Word Structure 65

NAME

Review Plurals, Irregular Plurals, and Possessives Fill in the blanks to complete the chart below. Singular

Plural

colony

____________________ ____________________ ____________________

waltz

____________________

REVIEW: CHAPTER 2 LESSONS 3–5

coach

banjo

____________________ city

portfolio physician ____________________ mouse ____________________ mosquito ____________________ ____________________

colonies waltzes ____________________ coaches ____________________ banjoes ____________________ cities ____________________ portfolios ____________________

Singular Possessive

colony’s

waltz’s

coach’s

____________________ banjo’s

Plural Possessive

colonies’ waltzes’ ____________________ coaches’ ____________________ banjoes’ ____________________ cities’ ____________________

city’s portfolio’s portfolios’ ____________________ physicians’ physician’s ____________________ physicians ____________________ mice’s mouse’s ____________________ mice ____________________ mosquitoes mosquito’s mosquitoes’ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Read the sentences below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that correctly completes each sentence. 1. Andy enjoys reading nonfiction and usually chooses (biographies, biographys) or true-adventure (storyes, stories). 2. Tanner prefers (mysterys, mysteries) and crime (novels, noveles). 3. Dwarves, (elfs, elves), and (ogres, ogres’) are not uncommon characters in the (folktales, folktaleses) and (legends, legendes) that Shelby reads. 4. Natalie has a large collection of Japanese (comices, comics) that she orders from online specialty stores. 5. All three sixth-grade (class’s, classes) at Washington Heights Middle School are reading J. R. R. Tolkien’s book The Hobbit. 6. Sydney and Evan love looking through their mom’s (cookbooks, cookbookes) and making interesting (recipies, recipes), like Cheesy Chicken (Burritoes, Burritos) or Upside-Down Cake with (Mangoes, Mango’s).

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 66

Review: Lessons 3–5 Word Structure

NAME

Review Plurals, Irregular Plurals, and Possessives The possessives have been written incorrectly in the announcements below. On each line, rewrite the correct form of the possessive and its object. 1. Join Harris Books’ Literate Ladys’ Reading Club! __________________________________ 2. Learn drawing, painting, or ceramics at the Watman Recreation Center. Call 5553423 for all the class’s schedules. ________________________________________________

with any information: 555-9895. Reward offered! __________________________________ 4. For sale: 30 assorted childs toys—$15 or best offer. ________________________________ 5. Volunteers needed! Help clean Johnson Park this Sunday. Each persons’ participation will be rewarded with a picnic lunch! ______________________________ 6. A benefit auction will be held for Jake Masters. Help raise funds to help pay for Jakes internship in the Brazilian rain forest.________________________________________ 7. New, advanced fishing-lure technology! Trouts’ mouths just can’t wait to bite onto this bait! Call 1-800-555-3938 for more details! ____________________________________ Phonics Connection 1. On the lines, write the two words in the exercise above in which the digraph ch is pronounced /k/. ____________________

____________________

2. On the lines, write the two words that contain a vowel pair that makes the sound you hear in raw. ____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

____________________

Review: Lessons 3–5 Word Structure 67

REVIEW: CHAPTER 2 LESSONS 3–5

3. On 3/23/07, my mothers purse was left behind at Billy’s BBQ Palace. Please call

NAME

Lesson 2.6 Compound Words A compound word is a combination of two shorter words. hand + shake = handshake

candle + stick = candlestick

Some words are called open compounds. In open compounds, there is a space between the two words, but they refer to a single thing. home run

high school

Use the pictures to help you fill in the blanks in the problems below.

1.

2.

+

= ____________________

+

= ____________________

3. bare +

= ____________________

4.

5.

6. jelly +

+

+

= ____________________

= ____________________

= ____________________

Form a common compound word by drawing a line to match each word in column 1 to a word in column 2. Write the compound word on the line. 1. water

pool

2. loud

engine

3. whirl

weed

4. fire

melon

5. sea

speaker

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 68

watermelon loudspeaker ____________________ whirlpool ____________________ fire engine ____________________ seaweed ____________________ ____________________

Chapter 2 Lesson 6 Word Structure

NAME

Lesson 2.6 Compound Words Read the letter below. Circle the 12 compound words, and draw a slash (/) between the two parts of each compound. You do not need to mark the same word more than once.

Dear Friends and Neighbors, We, the kids of Fulton-Kings neighborhood, are writing to you with a very important message. If you have read the local newspaper recently, you are probably aware of the discussion surrounding the empty lot at the corner of Benson Avenue and 8th Street. The city intends to turn the lot into a dump for non-hazardous materials. As you know, many Fulton-Kings residents live in apartments or homes with small backyards. Wouldn’t you rather your children spent their afternoons and weekends outdoors instead of being cooped up inside? This is why we would like to propose that a park be built in place of the dump. Several parents have volunteered to help build a playground. Stebbins Nursery is willing to donate plants for landscaping, as well as a small greenhouse for the community garden. We’d also like to have a basketball court, a large sandbox, and a pond. We are asking all the residents of Fulton-Kings to take the time to sign our petition. You can also e-mail the mayor’s office ([emailprotected]) or the city commissioner ([emailprotected]) and let your opinions about this project be heard. Without your help, the newest addition to our neighborhood will be a dump. Isn’t it worthwhile to help us make a positive change? Sincerely,

Darius, Alex, Breanna, Mackenzie, Nasira, Kayla, Robert, Tasha, Dinh, Vanessa, Sammy Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 2 Lesson 6 Word Structure 69

NAME

Lesson 2.7 Contractions • A contraction is an abbreviated way of writing two words. An apostrophe (’) takes the place of the missing letters in a contraction. doesn’t = does not you’ll = you will I’ve = I have • The words will and not form the contraction won’t. Underline the correct contraction in each set of parentheses below. (There’re, The’re) probably a number of foods you (are’nt, aren’t) too crazy about eating. (I’d, I’ld) guess that certain vegetables are at the top of your list, but you probably (have’nt, haven’t) ever needed to politely refuse a plate full of insects. People around the world eat all kinds of things (I’am, I’m) guessing (you’d, you’ld) never imagine making a meal from. For instance, in Colombia, (do’nt, don’t) be surprised if you see people eating fried ants. (The’re, They’re) served in paper cones and eaten as a snack similar to popcorn. A Colombian (won’t, wo’nt) hesitate to eat a guinea pig, either. (It’s, Its’) a common source of meat in South America. In New Zealand, (they’ve, th’ave) been eating grubs for centuries. Hu Hu grubs (aren’t, are’nt) just for the native Maori people, though. Many New Zealanders of European descent, and plenty of tourists, like them, too. (They’ill, They’ll) tell you that the grubs taste like peanut butter. Now, (let’s, lets’s) head north to Japan and Korea, where some restaurants serve sea slugs as a delicacy. You (might’ve, might’ave) thought that sea slugs could be tasty if the cook has drizzled a flavorful sauce over them, but (heres, here’s) the problem: sea slugs are eaten alive! One of France’s most famous dishes is escargot cooked in a garlicky butter sauce. Maybe (your, you’re) thinking that sounds tasty, but you (shouldn’t, should’nt) decide until I translate the dish’s name into English. Escargot is the French word for snails. (What’re, What’er) you thinking now?

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 70

Chapter 2 Lesson 7 Word Structure

NAME

Lesson 2.7 Contractions Each of the following sentences contains one incorrect contraction. Circle the contraction and rewrite it correctly on the line. 1. I’ve been waiting for years to try something I have’nt done before: parachuting.

____________________

2. Next week, Im going skydiving with someone who’s jumped more than a hundred times.

____________________

3. My instructors shown me everything I should and shouldn’t do while falling through the air.

____________________

4. We’ve even jumped off a tall platform so that the impact when I land wo’nt be a surprise.

____________________

5. I’m confident about the landing; thats not what’s bothering me.

____________________

6. I keep dreaming that theres a strong wind that carries me far away from where I should’ve landed.

____________________

7. For the last two nights, I have’nt slept well.

____________________

8. I mustn’t stay up too late the night before because were taking off early in the morning.

____________________

9. My instructor assured me today that we’ll do just fine, and if the winds too strong, we wouldn’t be jumping anyway.

____________________

Phonics Connection 1. Find four words from the exercise above that contain the same long a vowel pair and write them on the lines. ____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

2. Find two words in which the /sh/ sound is not spelled sh and write them on the lines. ____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

____________________

Chapter 2 Lesson 7 Word Structure 71

NAME

Review Compound Words and Contractions Read the words in both boxes below. On the lines that follow, combine the words to make as many compound words as possible. Box A (first half of compound)

REVIEW: CHAPTER 2 LESSONS 6–7

fire

any

home

Box B (second half of compound) under

body place ground fly grown one room town sick wood thing fighter where water wear bag more made cover works

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Unscramble the bold letters and write the compound word that matches each clue below. Draw a slash (/) to separate the two words in each compound. 1. bread made with ground corn

adcrberno ____________________

2. a skate used for moving around on ice

eic kstea

____________________

3. a cup used for drinking tea

ctaepu

____________________

4. a print made by a foot

fnopirott

____________________

5. to ride on the back of a horse

sebahocrk ____________________

6. light from a candle

elictdlghan ____________________

7. a hive in which bees live

vehiebe

8. a bear that lives in polar regions

olapr brae ____________________

9. a hole in which a button fits

hobtlonute ____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 72

____________________

Review: Lessons 6–7 Word Structure

NAME

Review Compound Words and Contractions Circle the contractions in the sentences below. Write the two words that make up each contraction on the lines that follow the sentence. 1. If you’re interested in music, you should visit the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland, Ohio. ___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

3. A musician can’t be inducted until 25 years after his or her first record is released. ___________________

___________________

4. It’s probably the best place in the country to learn about the history of rock music and the performers who made it famous. ___________________

___________________

5. Cleveland wasn’t the only city that wanted the Hall of Fame, but 600,000 residents signed petitions and won the honor for their hometown. ___________________

___________________

6. All the inductees aren’t American and British, but some people feel that rockers from other countries haven’t been given enough attention. ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 7. You shouldn’t plan to visit the museum if you don’t have plenty of time to spend looking at the impressive collections. ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 8. There’re thousands of rare artifacts from artists like the Beatles, Elvis Presley, the Rolling Stones, U2, and Michael Jackson. ___________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

___________________

Review: Lessons 6–7 Word Structure 73

REVIEW: CHAPTER 2 LESSONS 6–7

2. However, if you are expecting to see relatively new artists, you’ll probably be disappointed.

NAME

Lesson 2.8 Prefixes Adding a prefix to the beginning of a base word can change its meaning. • The prefixes in-, im-, ir-, and il- all mean not. impure = not pure inconvenient = not convenient illegal = not legal irresponsible = not responsible Read the paragraphs below. Circle the 13 words that contain the prefixes in-, im-, ir-, or il-. Normally, my brother, Will, and I are inseparable. We have a lot of fun together and our disagreements are infrequent. Last weekend, though, we had a fight our parents described as immature and irrational. After breakfast that morning, Will asked if I would help him with a project. Working with my older brother is always an irresistible treat, so I quickly agreed. Will explained that we were going to move a pile of stones from the front of the house to the garden in the backyard. By the time I got the wheelbarrow, my brother stood impatiently waiting to get started. We quickly loaded the cart with small stones, which we took turns wheeling to the garden. I thought it was inefficient, because one of us just stood there half the time. The stones became bigger as we reached the bottom of the pile. The last stone was practically immovable. My brother insisted that we lift it into the wheelbarrow, but I thought that was illogical. I suggested that the stone would be easier to roll around the house. Will didn’t seem to like the fact that his little brother had come up with a better idea. He claimed that my inexperience in landscape work made me incapable of knowing how to handle the rock. Our comments became increasingly impolite and increasingly loud. That was when our parents came outside to see what was happening. To Will’s credit, he did apologize a few days later and admitted that he was incorrect about the best way to move the stone. Yet another reason I admire my brother!

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 74

Chapter 2 Lesson 8 Word Structure

NAME

Lesson 2.8 Prefixes • The prefixes en- and em- mean in, into, make, or cause to. enlarge = make large Read each pair of sentences below. Complete them with a pair of words from the box. The words you choose should fit the context of the sentences. envisioned, ensured

enrolled, employed

enlisted, enriched

engulf, encouraged

1. The fire chief waited for the flames to ____________________ the building before allowing the firefighters-in-training to put it out. 2. The veteran firefighters stood at the sidelines and ____________________ the men and women who faced the blaze.

3. On August 23, Mr. Hopple ____________________ his three-year-old triplets at Sunnyside Preschool. 4. Mr. Hopple had been ____________________ by the school as a teacher for six years, but recently he decided to teach at the elementary school.

5. Margaret Fernandez ____________________ in the army when she graduated from college. 6. Looking back on her years in the military, Margaret felt that the experience had ____________________ her life.

7. Miles spent three weekends in a row trying to create the project he had ____________________ as his entry for the science fair. 8. Once he ____________________ that everything worked exactly as planned, Miles helped his dad load the bulky machine into the minivan.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 2 Lesson 8 Word Structure 75

NAME

Lesson 2.8 Prefixes • The prefix co- means together. • The prefix mid- means middle. • The prefix re- means again.

cocaptain = to be captains together midday = middle of the day reunite = unite again

Read each clue below. Underline the word in parentheses that matches the clue. On the line, write the base word. 1. to host something together (cohost, rehost)

____________________

2. the middle of a stream (costream, midstream)

____________________

3. to produce again (reproduce, coproduce)

____________________

4. to write again (cowrite, rewrite)

____________________

Circle the word with a prefix in each sentence below. On the line, write the definition of the word. 1. Anna’s parents cofounded the Beckwith Little Theater 12 years ago. ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. They had both loved performing as children and were excited to rediscover their hobby with Anna and her brother. ______________________________________________ 3. In June, they began auditions for the lead in the midsummer production. ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. It was cowritten by two teachers from Anna’s school. ____________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. They retold a famous Shakespeare play but set it in modern times. ________________________________________________________________________________ 6. After watching the rehearsal, the Beckwiths felt reassured that the play would be a great success. ________________________________________________________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 76

Chapter 2 Lesson 8 Word Structure

NAME

Lesson 2.8 Prefixes • The prefix inter- means between or among. • The prefix semi- means partly or half. • The prefix non- means not.

interstate = between states semisweet = partly sweet nonproductive = not productive

Read the words and the clues below. Circle the prefixes in the words in the second column. On the line, write the letter of the word that matches each clue.

h e connect among one another 2. ______ l not factual 3. ______ a half solid 4. ______ j between nations 5. ______ b not academic 6. ______ k partly dry 7. ______ d not fiction 8. ______ f between coasts 9. ______ c half a circle 10. ______ i not specific 11. ______ g between colleges 12. ______ 1. ______ partly conscious

a. semisolid b. nonacademic c. semicircle d. nonfiction e. interconnect f. intercoastal g. intercollegiate h. semiconscious i. nonspecific j. international k. semidry l. nonfactual

Phonics Connection Use the words in column 2 to answer the questions that follow. 1. On the lines, write the words that contain the soft c and soft g sounds. ____________________

____________________

____________________

2. Which two words contain both the soft and hard sounds of c? ____________________ Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

____________________ Chapter 2 Lesson 8 Word Structure 77

NAME

Lesson 2.8 Prefixes • The • The • The • The

prefix prefix prefix prefix

uni- means one. bi- means two. tri- means three. multi- means many.

unicolor = one color bimonthly = happening every two months triangle = having three angles multilevel = having many levels

Read the questions and the choices that follow. Underline the word that matches each description. 1. What is a competition in which athletes compete in three sports? triathlon

multilevel

biathlon

2. What are eyeglasses that contain two different types of lenses called? trifocals

bifocals

multifocals

3. What is the name for a person who speaks many languages? trilingual

bilingual

multilingual

4. What is something that is a single color called? multicolor

tricolor

unicolor

5. What is the name for a celebration that marks 200 years? bicentennial

tricentennial

multicentennial

6. What is the name for a mythical creature that has a single horn on its head? biped

unicorn

tripod

7. What is an event that deals with people from many cultures called? multicultural

unicultural

bicultural

8. What is the name for a series of three books? biology

multipack

trilogy

9. What is something that can be used for many different purposes called? multipurpose

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 78

bipurpose

tripurpose

Chapter 2 Lesson 8 Word Structure

NAME

Lesson 2.8 Prefixes • The prefix dis- means not or opposite of. • The prefix mis- means wrongly or badly.

dishonest = not honest misread = read wrongly

Replace each set of bold words below with a word using mis or dis. Last week, my friend Thomas and I had a bit of a bad understanding ____________________ with our teacher, Mrs. Younger. Our class had gone to a park to gather leaves and twigs to make a nature collage. Mrs. Younger had asked that everyone not badly treat ____________________ the privilege of a special day away from class by not obeying ____________________ her rules. Thomas and I decided to check out a path that ran into the woods. Thomas assured me he knew the perfect place to find cool leaves. The problem was that Thomas badly judged ____________________ how well he knew the park. He wrongly led ____________________ us onto a path he didn’t recognize, and we were lost. For an hour we hiked up and down a bunch of different paths. We tried not to get not encouraged ____________________, but we knew Mrs. Younger was going to be mad because we had not appeared ____________________ into the woods. Finally, we found a way out. Mrs. Younger was not pleased ____________________ with us, to say the least. She was frustrated by our bad behavior ____________________, but mostly she was worried that something had happened. We promised to use better judgment next time, and Mrs. Younger said she had no doubt we would. What a day!

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 2 Lesson 8 Word Structure 79

NAME

Lesson 2.9 Suffixes Adding a suffix to the end of a base word can change its meaning. Sometimes the spelling of a base word must change before an ending is added. For example, you may need to drop a final e, double a final consonant, or change a y to i before adding a suffix. • The suffixes -sion and -tion mean the act of, state of, or quality of. operation = the act of operating confusion = state of being confused Read the paragraphs below. Circle the 15 words that contain the suffixes -sion and -tion. Do not mark the same word more than once. Animation is the illusion created by making unmoving objects in different positions appear to move. It is a sort of deception of the human eye. The images pass so quickly that your brain connects each frame in one continuous movement. Animators usually create 24 frames per each second of film. If you do some calculations, you’ll see how much time, energy, and attention go into the production of a single television cartoon or feature film. In the past, animation was done completely by hand. In addition to being able to create interesting illustrations, an animator needed to work with precision, concentration, and great patience. Cel animation was used for the first time in the early 1900s, and it sped things up a bit. Using transparent overlays saved the animators time because they did not need to re-create the entire background for every frame. Nothing changed the world of animation more, however, than the invention of the computer. Not all modern animation is created digitally, but the obvious attraction of using a computer is how much time can be saved. Computer animation can also be incredibly realistic. Most computer animated figures are three-dimensional, a quality that brings the characters to life in a way that almost nothing else can.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 80

Chapter 2 Lesson 9 Word Structure

NAME

Lesson 2.9 Suffixes • The suffixes -er and -or can mean a person who. director = a person who directs gardener = a person who gardens • The suffix -ist means one who makes or practices. pianist = someone who plays the piano Read each phrase below. On the line that follows, write a sentence using a word that replaces the phrase and contains the suffix -er, -or, or -ist. Ex.: a person who speaks The Speaker of the House is a powerful position in the U.S. House of Representatives. 1. a person who paints ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. a person who invents ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. one who creates novels ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. a person who governs ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. one who studies biology ________________________________________________________________________________ 6. a person who collects ________________________________________________________________________________ 7. a person who boxes ________________________________________________________________________________ 8. a person who conducts ________________________________________________________________________________ Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 2 Lesson 9 Word Structure 81

NAME

Lesson 2.9 Suffixes • The suffixes -ness and -ship mean state of being or condition of. roughness = state of being rough partnership = state of being a partner • The suffixes -ance and -ence mean state of being or the act of. existence = the state of existing guidance = the act of guiding Add a suffix to each base word below. Write the new word on the first line. On the second line, write the definition of the word. Then, circle each word in the word search puzzle. Words may be written forward, backward, or diagonally. 1. fair + ness = ____________________ ________________________________________________ 2. occur + ence = ____________________ ____________________________________________ 3. assist + ance = ____________________ ____________________________________________ 4. companion + ship = ____________________ ________________________________________ 5. round + ness = ____________________ ____________________________________________ 6. fragrant + ance = ____________________ __________________________________________ 7. innocent + ence = ____________________ ________________________________________ 8. citizen + ship = ____________________ ____________________________________________ o

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Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 82

Chapter 2 Lesson 9 Word Structure

NAME

Lesson 2.9 Suffixes • The suffix -ly means in a way. quietly = in a quiet way lucky = having luck • The suffix -y means being or having. • The suffixes -al and -ial mean like or having the characteristic of. coastal = having the characteristics of the coast industrial = having the characteristics of industry Circle the 23 words below that end with the suffix -ly, -y, -al, or -ial. On a steamy day in August, Julia O’Brien boarded a plane for Ireland. She had wanted for years to see her family’s ancestral home. When she finally stood before the modest cottage, Julia felt herself becoming teary. It sat alone on a small, grassy hill, the windows winking brightly in the afternoon sun. It was just a traditional Irish cottage, but to Julia, there was something almost magical about seeing the house where generations of her ancestors had been born. The house’s mossy walls and friendly face immediately made Julia feel like she had come home. “It might smell a bit stuffy or musty when you first go inside,” said a kindly voice behind Julia,“but I’ve tried to air it out at least once a week. It’s essential when we have long spells of rainy weather.” Julia turned around abruptly to see a small woman with a halo of white hair, inky black eyes, and a cheerful grin. “I’m Maggie Flanagan,” the woman added helpfully.“I’ve lived next door to the O’Briens my whole life.” Julia smiled, glad to see a cheery face.“I was worried that my family’s history would be lost if I didn’t come along to claim it,” she said thoughtfully. Mrs. Flanagan nodded and gently took Julia’s arm.“You’d have your grandma’s approval if she were here. She was the family memory-keeper, just like you.”

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 2 Lesson 9 Word Structure 83

NAME

Lesson 2.9 Suffixes The suffixes -ous and -ious mean having the quality of. disastrous = having the quality of a disaster superstitious = having the quality of superstition Read each base word below. Add the suffix -ous or -ious and write the new word on the first line. On the second line, write a sentence using the word you formed. Remember, you may need to alter the spelling of the base word . 1. adventure ➞ ____________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. infect ➞ ____________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. miracle ➞ ____________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. caution ➞ ____________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ambition ➞ ____________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 6. fury ➞ ____________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Phonics Connection Use the words you formed in exercise 1 to answer the questions below. 1. In which words does ti make the /sh/ sound? ____________________

____________________

____________________

2. On the lines, write the three words that contain r-controlled vowels. ____________________ Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 84

____________________

____________________ Chapter 2 Lesson 9 Word Structure

NAME

Lesson 2.9 Suffixes Some words have more than one suffix. thirstiness (-y, -ness) motivational (-tion, -al)

realistically (-ic, -al, -ly) hopefully (-ful, -ly)

Circle the word or words that contain more than one suffix in each sentence below. Make a slash (/) between the two suffixes. 1. Even though our field trip to the Wilson Zoological Gardens was for educational purposes, everyone still had a lot of fun. 2. A long line of people waited expectantly to get into the zoo that day, but our class entered effortlessly through a side door. 3. The zookeeper led us past a wide pond where dozens of birds gracefully glided through the water or waddled across the green carpet created by the ground’s mossiness. 4. In the reptile house, the zookeeper unlatched a fastener that held the top on an aquarium, then cautiously pulled out a six-foot python. 5. While the zookeeper fed lunch to the snake—disgustingly made up of live mice—our teacher described the realistic way the snake would have caught its food in the wild. 6. In the bat house, bats flitted jerkily around the cage and strategically maneuvered through the air to reach dangling pieces of fruit. 7. As the zookeeper spoke in a conversational tone to two giant brown bears, she casually tossed chunks of meat into their exceptionally clean cage. 8. The spotlessness of the bears’ cage surprised me, until I learned that each cage is regularly hosed out—twice a day. 9. Everyone in our group smiled and laughed at the companionship of the bears, as they playfully wrestled after eating lunch.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 2 Lesson 9 Word Structure 85

NAME

Review Prefixes and Suffixes

REVIEW: CHAPTER 2 LESSONS 8–9

Use the table to help you remember the meanings of the prefixes you learned. in-, im-, ir-, il-, non-, dis- = not

semi- = half, partly

en-, em- = in, into, or make

inter- = between, among

mid- = middle

co- = together

re- = again

mis- = wrongly or badly

uni- = one

bi- = two

tri- = three

multi- = many

Read the clues below. Choose the word from the box that matches each clue. Write the answers in the numbered spaces in the crossword puzzle. rearrange inexpensive misjudge interstate coexist

dishonest nonspecific enlarge semiprivate triceratops immature

Across 3. to exist together 7. between states 8. a horned dinosaur

9. not expensive 10. to make larger 11. to wrongly judge

Down 1. not specific 2. not mature 4. partly private

5. arrange again 6. not honest

n i c o e x i s t m n e r d m s m e i n t e r s t a t e p t r i c e r a t o p s t e p r h u c r r o r i n e x p e n s i v e i a e n l a r g e e f v n e i a g m i s j u d g e c t e t e Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 86

Review: Lessons 8–9 Word Structure

NAME

Review Prefixes and Suffixes Use the table to help you remember the meanings of the suffixes you learned. -sion, -tion = act, state, or quality of

-ly = in a way

-er, -or = a person who

-y = being, having

-ist = one who makes or practices

-al, -ial = having the characteristic of

-ness, -ship = state of being

-ous, -ious = having the quality of

Read the sentences below. Replace each set of bold words with a word that contains one of the suffixes from above and write it on the line. 1. On October 29, 1929,“Black Tuesday,” the stock market crashed and sent the United States into the Great state of being depressed ____________________. 2. Everyone from people who farm ____________________ to people who make art ____________________ to people who teach ____________________ suffered severe state of being hard ____________________ during this period in history. 3. As much as 25 percent of workers were unemployed, and the act of competing ____________________ for existing jobs was fierce. 4. People were desperate for strong state of being a leader ____________________, and in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president. 5. The New Deal was the name of Roosevelt’s program to combat the economic, social, and having the characteristics of finances ____________________ effects of the Depression. 6. There is not one single act of explaining ____________________ of why the Great Depression took place. 7. Although things were in a slow way ____________________ starting to improve in the late 1930s, it was preparation for World War II that finally changed the economic situation.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 8–9 Word Structure 87

REVIEW: CHAPTER 2 LESSONS 8–9

-ance, -ence = state of being, the act of

NAME

Lesson 2.10 Syllabication Words can be divided into parts called syllables. Each syllable has one vowel sound, so the number of a word’s vowel sounds equals the number of syllables. laugh·ing = 2 vowel sounds = 2 syllables car·ou·sel = 3 vowel sounds = 3 syllables o·per·a·tion = 4 vowel sounds = 4 syllables Read the paragraphs below. Next to each bold word write the number of vowel sounds you hear when you say the word out loud. Would ______ you ever consider ______ eating food grown in manure ______ inside a cave or a dark cellar? How do you feel about consuming ______ fungus ______? You might like mushrooms ______ on a pizza, but most ______ people give little thought ______ to the origins of the mushrooms they eat. Although ______ there are many varieties ______ of mushrooms, only a limited number are edible ______. People who forage ______ for mushrooms in the wild ______ must be exceedingly ______ careful. About 200 species of fungi are poisonous ______. It’s not always easy ______ to tell which mushrooms are dangerous ______. There’s no need ______ to worry about the mushrooms you buy at the store, however ______. They are raised for the purpose ______ of selling in markets, or they are gathered ______ by experienced ______ hunters. Truffles are the most valuable ______ fungi. They grow underground ______ and are difficult to find. Specially-trained ______ pigs and dogs are often used ______ to locate them in the wild. It’s worth all the trouble, though ______: a pound of truffles can sell for as much as 700 dollars ______! Phonics Connection Find three bold words that contain the /e/ sound. Write them on the lines and circle the letter or letters that make the sound. Answers will vary. Possible answers: e

consider

____________________ Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 88

fungus

____________________

dangerous

____________________ Chapter 2 Lesson 10 Word Structure

NAME

Lesson 2.10 Syllabication • A two-syllable compound word can be divided into syllables between the parts of the compound. • A word that has a prefix or suffix is divided between the prefix or suffix and the base word. • A word that has two consonants between two vowels (VCCV) is divided between consonants. • If a word has the VCV pattern, listen to the first vowel sound. If it is long, the word is usually divided after the first vowel. • If it is short, the word is usually divided after the consonant.

some·thing

sail·boat

re·place

bright·ness

mag·net

ef·fort

o·pen

fi·nal

met·al

sal·ad

On the line, write the word from the box that names each picture below. Draw a slash (/) to divide the word into syllables. hamburger lemon planets acorn grasshopper cupcake icicles jellyfish chimney

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 2 Lesson 10 Word Structure 89

NAME

Review Syllabication Read the entries in the time line below. Next to each bold word, write the number of vowel sounds. Then, draw slashes to divide the word into syllables.

REVIEW: CHAPTER 2 LESSON 10

The History of Transportation @ 3500 B.C.

the first wheeled carts are invented

1620

Cornelius Drebbel creates the first submarine ______

1662

Blaise Pascal’s horse-drawn bus, the first public ______ bus, runs along ______ the streets of Paris

1769

the self-propelled motor ______ vehicle ______ is invented by Nicholas-Joseph Cugnot

1783

the first hot air balloon ______, manned by the Montgolfier brothers, takes to the skies

1786

the first working steamboat ______ in the United ______ States chugs down the Delaware ______ River

1791

modern bicycles ______ are invented in Scotland ______

1804

the steam-powered locomotive ______ is invented

1873

the first cable streetcar ______ is introduced in San Francisco

1885

Karl Benz patents the gas-engine automobile ______ in Germany two German inventors create the first motorcycle

1903

the Wright Brothers invent and fly the first airplane ______

1926

Robert Goddard launches the first liquid-fueled rocket

1936

the first working helicopter ______ is produced in Germany

1947

Charles Yeager pilots the first supersonic ______ plane and breaks the sound barrier at 662 miles per hour

1969

the first manned mission to the moon is completed ______

1970

the Boeing 747, the first jumbo jet, is created

1981

Columbia, the first space shuttle ______, is launched

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 90

Review: Lesson 10 Word Structure

NAME

Review Syllabication Read the recipe below. Underline one-syllable bold words once and two-syllable bold words twice. Circle three-syllable bold words. Jambalaya 2 teaspoons paprika

s! pound chicken breast

f! teaspoon ground red pepper

7 ounces sliced turkey kielbasa

s! teaspoon salt

1 cup diced onion

1 teaspoon each dried basil and oregano

1 diced green bell pepper

2 tablespoons tomato paste

s! cup chopped celery

1 can diced tomatoes with green chiles

1 s! cups white rice

s! pound cleaned, raw shrimp

3 cups chicken broth

f! cup chopped green onions

1. Cut the chicken into little pieces. (Be sure to wash your hands thoroughly each time you touch raw meat or seafood.) Heat the oil in a large saucepan. Cook the chicken for about five minutes, and then transfer it to another dish. 2. Add the onion, pepper, and celery to the pan. Cook, stirring occasionally, for about 8 minutes. Add the kielbasa, and cook for an additional 5 minutes. 3. Add the rice, broth, and seasonings to the vegetable mixture. Bring it to a boil, then cover it and reduce the heat to low. Simmer for about 15 minutes. 4. Add the chicken, tomato paste, and diced tomatoes, and cook for 10 minutes. 5. Add the shrimp and green onions, and cook just until the shrimp turn pink. 6. Garnish with green onions, and serve with hot sauce. Recipe yields 6 servings. * Remember, you should always ask an adult for help in the kitchen when using knives or the stove.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lesson 10 Word Structure 91

REVIEW: CHAPTER 2 LESSONS 10

2 teaspoons oil

NAME

Lesson 3.1 Synonyms and Antonyms • A synonym is a word that has the same or almost the same meaning as another word. supply, provide decrease, lessen astonish, surprise • An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another word. complex, simple allow, forbid temporary, permanent Read the sentences below. On the line, write the word from the box that is a synonym for each bold word. probable

happen

origin

briefly

recall

quick

1. Even people who don’t usually remember ____________________ their dreams once they awaken still dream every night. 2. The majority of dreams occur ____________________ during a type of sleep that is known as REM, or rapid ____________________ eye movement, sleep. 3. During REM sleep, the eyes move quickly back and forth, breathing becomes faster, and the body is temporarily ____________________ paralyzed. 4. Scientists don’t agree about the source ____________________ of dreams or their meanings. 5. Studies done on animals show that mammals and birds have sleep cycles that are similar to humans, so it is likely ____________________ that they also dream. Read the sets of words below. Circle the pair of antonyms in each set. 1. compliment

correct

insult

solution

2. question

answer

ignore

prepare

3. worn

separate

stiff

flexible

4. different

ancient

modern

ordinary

5. useless

public

increase

private

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 92

Chapter 3 Lesson 1 Vocabulary

NAME

Lesson 3.1 Synonyms and Antonyms Read the paragraphs below. If the bold word is followed by an A, find an antonym from the box and write it on the line. If it is followed by an S, find a synonym and write it on the line. finishing always altered fortunately viewpoint group previous motivated located cowardly vanished failures insignificant Amelia Earhart was a courageous (A) ____________________ woman who forever changed (S) ____________________ the world’s perspective (S) ____________________ about women in aviation. Earhart was nationally recognized in 1928 when she became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic. However, she was only a passenger on the plane. The trip inspired (S) ____________________ Earhart to plan a solo (A) ____________________ transatlantic flight. Four years later, on May 20, 1932, Earhart flew across the ocean and set a record by completing (S) ____________________ the journey in 14 hours and 56 minutes. The next (A) ____________________ important flight Earhart planned was the crossing of the Pacific Ocean, from Hawaii to California. Although this might not seem like a monumental (A) ____________________ trip today, no other aviators at that time had successfully accomplished the goal. In 1935, Earhart made the trip and added another record to her list of achievements (A) ____________________. Amelia Earhart’s next mission was to fly all the way around the world. Unfortunately (A) ____________________, it was a goal that she didn’t meet. On July 2, 1937, Earhart’s plane disappeared (S) ____________________ somewhere over the Pacific Ocean, near Howland Island. For years, people talked about what might have happened to the bold young aviator. To this day, no one is certain what became of Earhart and her navigator, Fred Noonan. The plane’s wreckage was never (A) ____________________ found (S) ____________________, and it likely still rests somewhere on the ocean floor. Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 3 Lesson 1 Vocabulary 93

NAME

Lesson 3.1 Synonyms and Antonyms Read each clue below. Unscramble the bold letters beside it to find the word that matches the clue and write it on the line. 1. an antonym for success

ilurfae

____________________

2. a synonym for feeble

keaw

____________________

3. a synonym for thin

endsler

____________________

4. an antonym for cautious

aecrelss

____________________

5. a synonym for vacant

tyepm

____________________

6. an antonym for awkward

cefgraul

____________________

7. a synonym for brave

cuoraguseo ____________________

8. an antonym for shrink

xnepad

____________________

9. an antonym for generous

ytisng

____________________

10. a synonym for frequent

otenf

____________________

11. a synonym for injure

unwod

____________________

12. an antonym for amateur

ofessalprion ____________________

Read each pair of words below. If the words are synonyms, write S on the line. If they are antonyms, write A on the line. 1. even, odd

7. permit, refuse

____________________

2. verify, confirm ____________________

8. stiff, flexible

____________________

3. amuse, bore ____________________

9. pardon, forgive ____________________

4. fact, fiction

____________________

____________________

10. wild, tame

____________________

5. understand, comprehend ____________________

11. peak, summit

____________________

6. grateful, appreciative ____________________

12. ignorant, knowledgeable ____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 94

Chapter 3 Lesson 1 Vocabulary

NAME

Lesson 3.1 Synonyms and Antonyms Read the paragraphs below and complete the activity that follows. Have you ever had the opportunity to view a total solar eclipse? Some people think that this natural event is so amazing that they are willing to travel great distances to see it. A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes directly in front of the sun. For a brief period of time, the sun’s light is blocked by the moon. A total eclipse can usually be viewed only from a relatively small area on Earth, whereas a partial eclipse can often be seen from a larger area. When the moon is at its closest to Earth, it obscures the sun completely. When it is farther away, it covers only the central part of the sun, leaving a bright ring around the edges. This is called an annular eclipse. Looking directly at the sun during an eclipse can cause great damage to the retina of the eye, even permanent blindness. One way to safely view a solar eclipse is to bring a glass full of dark liquid, like coffee or pop, outside with you. Position it so that you can see the eclipse reflected on its surface. The harmful light is absorbed by the beverage, but you can still see a clear image of the event. 1. In paragraph 1, find a synonym for chance.

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2. In paragraph 1, find an antonym for artificial.

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3. In paragraph 1, find a synonym for incredible.

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4. In paragraph 1, find a synonym for totally.

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5. In paragraph 1, find a synonym for borders.

____________________

6. In paragraph 2, find an antonym for temporary.

____________________

7. In paragraph 2, find a synonym for mirrored.

____________________

8. In paragraph 2, find a synonym for damaging.

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 3 Lesson 1 Vocabulary 95

NAME

Lesson 3.2 Shades of Meaning Even words that are synonyms may have different shades of meaning. It is important to use context to determine which word best completes a sentence. Because the words melt and thaw have different shades of meaning, one word (thaw) better fits the following sentence. Mr. Friedman almost forgot to melt the hamburgers for dinner. Mr. Friedman almost forgot to thaw the hamburgers for dinner. Read each pair of sentences below. Find the pair of words in the box that will complete the sentences. Write them on the lines, making sure that each word fits the meaning of the sentence. separate, divide knotted, tangled strength, power created, invented clear, empty 1. ____________________ the mess from the table before you start your homework. If you ____________________ your book bag, I can add it to this load of laundry. 2. Derek became ____________________ in the curtain as he tried to walk offstage. Mariah ____________________ the string tightly and handed the package to the mail carrier. 3. The artist ____________________ 20 new pieces of work for her first gallery show. Louis Braille ____________________ the Braille system of writing for people who cannot see. 4. ____________________ the students into groups of three. ____________________ the egg whites from the yolks, and beat them with a mixer. 5. My dad’s new lawnmower has a lot more ____________________ than the old one. In gym, we lifted weights to test our ____________________.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 96

Chapter 3 Lesson 2 Vocabulary

NAME

Lesson 3.2 Shades of Meaning Read the paragraphs below. The words in parentheses have different shades of meaning. Underline the word that best completes each sentence. The summer I turned 12, my life (changed, altered) forever. It wasn’t in any of the ways you’re (probably, likely) imagining. I didn’t (misplace, lose) my best friend, my parents didn’t win the lottery, and I didn’t have to (transport, move) all the way across the country and start a new life somewhere else. My older brother and I lived with our parents in a brick apartment building in downtown Chicago. I made (companions, friends) with an Indian family from two doors down when I was seven. Whenever I visited them, they told me (stories, fables) about life in India. Mrs. Mehta was always leaving covered plates filled with piping hot naan— a type of Indian flatbread—or spicy samosas at our door. I knew that the Mehtas were (traveling, voyaging) to India for a month at the (completion, end) of the summer, but I had no (thought, idea) I’d be invited to join them. My parents were both working long hours that summer, and my brother had unexpectedly gotten (a job, an occupation) at the college where he would attend classes in the fall. If I hadn’t traveled halfway around the world with the Mehtas, would I still have (detected, discovered) my passion for photography? I quickly found that I loved the way I could (capture, trap) a moment on film. The colors, movement, and activity in India astounded me. I didn’t want to miss anything because I knew I could never describe in words the world I was seeing. Every few years, I join the Mehtas on their journey (home, house). I bring my camera with me, of course, because I haven’t gone anywhere without it in years. I walk the streets of Bangalore, and I remember how they inspired me to discover my talent for photography the summer I turned 12.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 3 Lesson 2 Vocabulary 97

NAME

Lesson 3.3 Levels of Specificity Some words give the reader more detailed information than others. • In the following set of words—pear, fruit, food—the word food is the most general. Fruit is a more specific type of food. The word pear is more specific than either food or fruit. Read the sets of words below. On the line, rewrite each set in order from general to specific. 1. collie

mammal

dog

__________________________________________

2. city

Las Vegas

place

__________________________________________

3. illness

disease

diabetes

__________________________________________

4. subject

language

French

__________________________________________

5. celebration

event

birthday

__________________________________________

6. panic

feeling

worry

__________________________________________

7. tree

willow

plant

__________________________________________

8. vehicle

car

sedan

__________________________________________

9. structure

stadium

building

__________________________________________

dime

currency

__________________________________________

10. coin

Phonics Connection Use the words above to answer the questions that follow. 1. Find one word that contains a hard and a soft c and one word that contains a hard and a soft g, and write them on the lines. ____________________

____________________

2. On the lines, list the five words that contain a consonant digraph. ____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 98

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Chapter 3 Lesson 3 Vocabulary

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Lesson 3.3 Levels of Specificity Read the sentences below. For each word in bold, there is a more specific word in the box. Find the word and write it on the line. sergeant

novelist

pediatrician

teapots

fork

ballet

Orion

1. Lydia has been taking dance ____________________ classes for three years. 2. Seamus’s uncle is a soldier ____________________ in the Marine Corps. 3. Once you know the pattern to look for, it is easy to spot the constellation ____________________ on a clear night. 4. Please put a napkin and a utensil ____________________ next to each guest’s plate. 5. Grandma Caro has been collecting decorative containers ____________________ for nearly half a century. 6. Xavier hopes to be a writer ____________________ someday, while his sister, Asia, plans to be a doctor ____________________. Look at the pictures, and read the sentences below. On the line, write the word from the box that matches the picture and correctly completes the sentence. flip-flop

1. A

bookcase

painting

duck

doghouse

____________________ is a type of fowl, which is a type of bird.

2. The word shelter is more general than

____________________.

3. The word shoe is more general than specific than footwear.

____________________ but more

4. The word furniture is more general than

5. A still life is a type of Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

____________________.

____________________, which is a type of art. Chapter 3 Lesson 3 Vocabulary 99

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Review Synonyms, Antonyms, Shades of Meaning,

and Levels of Specificity Read the paragraphs below. On the line beside each bold word, write a synonym. On the line beside each underlined word, write an antonym. Take a moment, and try to think of different ____________________ ways messages and information have been sent throughout history. Letters, e-mails, the Pony Express,

REVIEW: CHAPTER 3 LESSONS 1–3

and telegraphs might come to mind. Chances are, however, that you never even considered a pigeon with a tiny ____________________ tube attached to its leg. Homing pigeons have been used for this purpose in Egypt since at least 3000 B.C. Pigeons have also been used to carry ____________________ emergency messages in many ____________________ other places around the world. During times of war, pigeons were a fairly reliable ____________________ way of sending information. One pigeon, employed by the U.S. Army Signal Corps, traveled the amazing ____________________ distance of approximately ____________________ 2,300 miles. Other pigeons routinely traveled distances of about 1,000 miles, flying at speeds of 30 to 60 miles per hour. Pigeons cannot be used to send messages between two random ____________________ locations. They can’t follow directions in order to arrive ____________________ at a certain destination. Instead, these intelligent ____________________ birds are trained to recognize a specific ____________________ place as home. The young birds are taken farther ____________________ away in each bout of training, and they eventually learn to find their way home from great distances. No one is sure ____________________ exactly how pigeons are able to find their way home from unfamiliar ____________________ places. Much research has been done on this interesting ____________________ phenomenon. Some scientists believe that pigeons may use Earth’s magnetic field as a sort of natural ____________________ compass. Others believe that they use landmarks, much the way people do. Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 100

Review: Lessons 1–3 Vocabulary

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Review Synonyms, Antonyms, Shades of Meaning,

and Levels of Specificity Read the sentences below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that best completes the sentence. On the line, write a new sentence correctly using the word you did not underline. 1. The wreckers are coming to (demolish, ruin) the old building on Tuesday. ________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Americans (eat, consume) more gas each year than people living in most other countries do. ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. (Delete, Remove) the cake from the oven in half an hour. ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Can I (use, operate) your cell phone to call my sister? ________________________________________________________________________________ 6. If you (turn, revolve) around quickly, you might still see the great blue heron standing on a log in the pond. ________________________________________________________________________________ Draw a line to match each word in the column on the left with a more specific word from the list beside it. 1. exercise

shampoo

7. metal

tarantula

2. shellfish

gallon

8. spider

molar

3. pepper

Japanese

9. politician

biceps

4. cleanser

aerobics

10. tooth

dill

5. Asian

jalapeño

11. herb

governor

6. measurement

shrimp

12. muscles

aluminum

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 1–3 Vocabulary 101

REVIEW: CHAPTER 3 LESSONS 1–3

2. Please load the (dirty, filthy) dishes into the dishwasher before you leave.

NAME

Lesson 3.4 hom*ophones Words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings are called hom*ophones. This weekend, Dad will repair the crack in the ceiling. Sealing the jars properly is an important step when canning fruit. Read the pairs of clues below. On the line, write each hom*ophone from the box next to its definition. sore, soar seller, cellar boulder, bolder flea, flee isle, aisle peddle, pedal rung, wrung build, billed hoarse, horse 1. more bold

____________________

a large stone

____________________

2. painful

____________________

to fly high in the air

____________________

a farmyard animal

____________________

a basem*nt

____________________

3. a husky or throaty voice

____________________

4. a person who sells things

____________________

5. squeezed tightly ____________________

the past tense of ring ____________________

6. the past tense of bill

to construct

____________________

7. an insect that feeds on animals ____________________

to run away

____________________

8. a pathway

____________________

an island

____________________

9. to sell

____________________

to ride a bike

____________________

____________________

Phonics Connection Which pair of words in the box contains two different spellings of the long e sound? ____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 102

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Chapter 3 Lesson 4 Vocabulary

NAME

Lesson 3.4 hom*ophones Read the sentences below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that correctly completes each sentence. 1. It took a crew of nearly 20,000 people to (billed, build) the Taj Mahal during the 1600s. 2. The Eiffel Tower, which was completed in 1889, has been a popular (symbol, cymbal) of France for more than a century. 3. San Francisco’s Coit Tower, which contains murals painted by 26 different artists, can be reached by only one (road, rode). 4. The tallest (mettle, metal) staircase in the world can be found inside Toronto’s famous CN Tower. 5. Australia’s Sydney Opera House is a unique piece of architecture that looks like a series of billowing (sails, sales) on boats in the harbor. 6. The United States (Capital, Capitol), located at the east end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., houses Congress. 7. Italy’s Leaning Tower of Pisa is currently about three feet taller on one (sighed, side) than the other. 8. The Great Wall of China, which stretches nearly 4,000 miles, can be (seen, scene) from outer space. Read the pairs of hom*ophones below. Use each word in a sentence. You may use a dictionary if you need to check the meaning of a word. 1. (chili, chilly) ____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. (throne, thrown) ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. (stationary, stationery) __________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 3 Lesson 4 Vocabulary 103

NAME

Lesson 3.5 Multiple-Meaning Words A multiple-meaning word, or hom*ograph, is a word that has more than one meaning. Context can help you determine which meaning the author intends. Mary Kelly is the newest member of the law firm. The tomato feels firm, so it is probably not ripe yet. Read each sentence and the definitions that follow. Circle the letter of the definition that matches the bold word. 1. In October of 2003, an amazing new water bridge opened in Germany. a. a card game

b. a structure that connects two areas

2. Although the project was begun in the 1930s, World War II and the Cold War stopped its progress until the 1990s. a. a task or plan

b. to cause an image to appear on a surface

3. On the day the bridge opened, hundreds of people lined the banks of the Elbe River to watch the first ships pass overhead. a. the land beside a body of water

b. places where people keep their money

4. The bridge is 3,011 feet long and cost the equivalent of more than 600 million dollars to build. a. the bottoms of legs

b. measurements equal to 12 inches

5. Imagine how stable and strong the bridge must be to withstand the weight of all that water! a. a building where horses are kept

b. sturdy; not easily moved

6. Thousands of pounds of steel and concrete were used in its construction. a. units of weight

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 104

b. hits something over and over

Chapter 3 Lesson 5 Vocabulary

NAME

Lesson 3.5 Multiple-Meaning Words Read each sentence below. On the line, write a sentence using another meaning of the bold word. If you need help, you may use a dictionary. 1. The members of the quiz team were preparing for a match against their toughest competitor. ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Their records were tied, and each team badly wanted to win. ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. In order to be fair, the questions were chosen randomly. ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. There were six pupils on each team, as well as two substitutes. ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. At the end of each round, the coaches took a few minutes to give the contestants a pep talk. ________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Although it was kind of difficult to concentrate in front of a crowd, most of the contestants had learned to focus their attention on the competition. ________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Winning the final match would mean the chance to compete in the regional championships. ________________________________________________________________________________ 8. The judges would present the winning team with a trophy. ________________________________________________________________________________ Phonics Connection 1. Which bold word above contains the long i sound?

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2. Which bold word above contains a vowel diphthong?

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 3 Lesson 5 Vocabulary 105

NAME

Review hom*ophones and Multiple-Meaning Words Read the paragraphs below. On each line, write a hom*ophone for the bold word. Some words have more than one correct answer. Neither Kate nor Emily had ever been ____________________ to a flea ____________________ market before, but they knew their ____________________ grandma

REVIEW: CHAPTER 3 LESSONS 4–5

went frequently. She collected antique perfume bottles, old quilts, and postcards from around the world. “It really doesn’t matter whether ____________________ or not we find ____________________ anything today,” Grandma told the girls.“I think you’ll enjoy browsing the booths and people watching.” Although it was not yet 10, the outdoor flea market was already humming with activity. Kate, Emily, and Grandma made their way ____________________ through ____________________ the crowd and began looking at the goods set on tables and piled in bins. The sellers ____________________ eagerly answered questions from potential buyers. Kate loved sifting through the old-fashioned clothes ____________________ and imagining who their owners might have been. She held up a cheery red dress with a flower ____________________ peeking out of the pocket. She couldn’t wait to try it on. “Did you find anything?” Emily asked, as Grandma entered the booth. Her grandma sighed ____________________.“I found a beautiful quilt,” she said.“I could tell that each piece ____________________ of fabric had a story to tell. I was ready to buy ____________________ it when I noticed a hole ____________________ in the lining. I couldn’t help myself, though. I bought it anyway, but it looks like I’ve got some work ahead of me.” Kate smiled.“You can’t fool us,” she said.“We know that your favorite finds are things that need ____________________ a little love and attention.” “You girls know ____________________ me too well!” Grandma exclaimed. Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 106

Review: Lessons 4–5 Vocabulary

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Review hom*ophones and Multiple-Meaning Words Read the paragraphs and answer the questions that follow.

1. In Paragraph 2, which word means obstructs and cubes?

____________________

2. In Paragraph 3, which word means hits and organizations?

____________________

3. In Paragraph 3, which word means knock down and platform? ____________________ 4. In Paragraph 4, which word means tale and floor or level?

____________________

5. In Paragraph 4, which word means things and disapproves?

____________________

6. In Paragraph 4, which word means exit and plug?

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 4–5 Vocabulary 107

REVIEW: CHAPTER 3 LESSONS 4–5

No one knows for sure when or where playing cards were invented. One theory says that they were developed in India as a variation on chess. Others think that cards were first used as game markers in China or Egypt. Wherever they came from originally, they reached the Middle East about a thousand years ago and arrived in Europe during the 1200s. Card decks in those days had to be hand drawn or painted. This process made each deck very expensive. Only wealthy people, especially royalty, played card games. Around 1400, though, wood blocks were first used to print cards, so the decks became more affordable. Today, almost three-quarters of the world’s population play some sort of card games. The deck that is most commonly used has four suits—hearts, spades, diamonds, and clubs. Each suit is made of 13 cards—king, queen, jack, ace, and cards numbered two through ten. Cards have given artists and designers a unique outlet for their work. Some decks contain a story in pictures that runs from one card to the next. Other decks display photographs or drawings of a particular group of people or objects. For instance, one deck may show 52 vintage cars and another might show 52 British manor houses.

NAME

Lesson 3.6 Clipped Words and Acronyms Clipped words are words that are commonly used in their shortened forms for convenience. vet = veterinarian

flu = influenza

exam = examination

Jefferson Middle School is hosting an auction as a school fundraiser. Find the word in each item that can be clipped, underline it, and write the shortened form of the word on the line. 1. a one-year membership to the Wyndham Zoological Gardens

____________________

2. the chance to play a game and get some tips from international tennis champion Austin Mills

____________________

3. two airplane tickets to Maui, Hawaii

____________________

4. one school year’s worth of mathematics tutoring from the qualified tutors at the Learning Center

____________________

5. a full family membership to Malleys’ Gymnasium (any of our four locations)

____________________

6. two courtside tickets to the professional basketball game of your choice at Wyndham Arena

____________________

7. certificates redeemable for 25 free hamburgers at Whitey’s Drive-Thru

____________________

8. two evenings of unlimited limousine service

____________________

9. a one-year pass to Mo’s Miniature Golf World

____________________

Phonics Connection Use your answers from the exercise above to complete the following items. 1. Which two words contain digraphs? ____________________

____________________

2. Which word contains two r-controlled vowels?

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 108

Chapter 3 Lesson 6 Vocabulary

NAME

Lesson 3.6 Clipped Words and Acronyms Acronyms and initializations are abbreviations using the first letter of each word in a name or title. In an acronym, the letters are pronounced as a word (NATO). In an initialization, the individual letters are pronounced (UN). NATO = North Atlantic Treaty Organization

UN = United Nations

In some abbreviations, small words, like articles or prepositions, are left out. ESL = English as a second language On the line, write an acronym or initialization for each set of words. 1. unidentified flying object

____________________

2. self-contained underwater breathing apparatus

____________________

3. Parent-Teacher Association

____________________

4. grade point average

____________________

5. sports utility vehicle

____________________

6. University of North Carolina

____________________

7. Central Intelligence Agency

____________________

Read the sentences below. On the line, write the initialization from the box that matches each bold phrase. LOL

HAND

ASAP

OTOH

IMO

BTW

1. In my opinion ____________________, the game lasted way too long. 2. E-mail me as soon as possible ____________________. 3. Mr. Haas had the whole class laughing out loud ____________________. 4. By the way ____________________, I borrowed your blue sweater. 5. I’d like to go to the movies tonight. On the other hand ____________________, my favorite show is on TV. 6. Have a nice day ____________________ and don’t forget your lunch! Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 3 Lesson 6 Vocabulary 109

NAME

Lesson 3.7 Word Play A palindrome is a word or sentence that reads the same forward and backward. madam

noon

Step on no pets.

Top spot.

Circle the letter of the palindrome in each pair below. 1. a. Race fast, safe car. b. Roy, am I the mayor? 2. a. Stella won no wallets. b. Ned, I am not a maiden. 3. a. Never odd nor even. b. Dr. Awkward 4. a. Flee to me, my remote elf. b. Wontons? Not now.

5. a. Was it a car or some cat I saw? b. Nurses run. 6. a. Gary knits me stinky rag. b. Did Hannah say as Hannah did? 7. a. Too bad I’ve hidden a boot. b. Some men interpret nine memos. 8. a. A man, a plan, a canal, Panama! b. Don’t ever nod.

An anagram is formed by rearranging the letters of another word. night ➞ thing

limped ➞ dimple

won ➞ now

Read the sentences below. Circle the word in each sentence that is an anagram for the bold word. 1. Maria packed three pairs of shoes for her trip to Paris. 2. Casey grabbed a stack of paper, a stapler, two pens, and a few tacks. 3. We’ll need more time if we are going to visit all of the landmarks in Rome. 4. Dad omits most of the oil from the recipe, but his chocolate cake is still always moist and delicious. 5. Did you buy enough meat to feed everyone on the team? 6. Every March, my grandma gives me a new charm for my bracelet. 7. None of the passengers noticed the small neon sign.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 110

Chapter 3 Lesson 7 Vocabulary

NAME

Lesson 3.7 Word Play A portmanteau (pôrt’ man t¯ o’) word is a combination of two other words. Unlike a compound word, it contains only parts of the words. bash = bang + smash

moped = motor + pedal

Read the sentences below. Replace each set of bold words with a portmanteau word from the box. Internet flurry guestimated

splattered dumbfound scrawl smog brunch splurged

1. After breakfast + lunch ____________________, Rashid sat down at the computer. 2. He brought up the international network ____________________ so that he could research ideas for a science fair project. 3. Rashid wanted to find something spectacular, something that would dumb + confound ____________________ his entire class. 4. For the previous year’s fair, he had splashed + surged ____________________ on a kit he had found online. 5. It was supposed to demonstrate how smoke + fog ____________________ in large cities was contributing to global warming, but it hadn’t been much of a success. 6. The materials weren’t very good quality, and water had splashed + spattered ____________________ all over Rashid’s table at the fair. 7. After scanning several sites, Rashid suddenly found the perfect idea and began to scribble + sprawl ____________________ the instructions on a piece of scrap paper. 8. He guessed + estimated ____________________ how much he would need of certain materials and headed to the store in a flutter + hurry ____________________ of excitement.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 3 Lesson 7 Vocabulary 111

NAME

Review Clipped Words, Acronyms, and Word Play

REVIEW: CHAPTER 3 LESSONS 6–7

Read each clipped word below. Its unabbreviated form is written beside it, but the letters are scrambled. Unscramble them and write the word on the line. 1. tie ➞ cktinee

____________________

2. prof ➞ ofeporrss

____________________

3. exam ➞ eamionxanit

____________________

4. vet ➞ ianverinaret

____________________

5. sub ➞ stituubste

____________________

6. mini ➞ mniiauret

____________________

7. ref ➞ eerfere

____________________

Replace each set of bold words with an acronym or an initialization. 1. Sonia made herself a bacon, lettuce, and tomato ____________________ sandwich for lunch. 2. Mr. Jimenez filed his tax return online at the Web site for the Internal Revenue Service ____________________. 3. Bryan’s uncle was a prisoner of war ____________________ during the Gulf War. 4. “Tell your sister to hurry because we have to leave as soon as possible ____________________.” 5. Our video cassette recorder ____________________ is broken, but we usually watch DVDs anyway. 6. After graduating from high school, William will attend the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ____________________. 7. When you see the French phrase Respondez s’il vous plait ____________________ on an invitation, you should let the host know whether you’ll be attending the event. 8. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization ____________________ has its headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, and was established in 1949. Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 112

Review: Lessons 6–7 Vocabulary

NAME

Review Clipped Words, Acronyms, and Word Play Read the sentences and phrases below. On the line, write the word from the box that correctly completes each palindrome. You may want to use a piece of scrap paper to help you figure out which word is missing. race

tell

save

frost

drawn

1. We’ll let Dad ____________________ Lew.

3. Are we not ____________________ onward to new era? 4. Anne, I vote more cars ____________________ Rome to Vienna. 5. No mists or ____________________, Simon. On the line, write the letter of the word in column 2 that is an anagram for each word in column 1. 1. ____________________ ocean

a. dusty

2. ____________________ saint

b. Madison

3. ____________________ study

c. canoe

4. ____________________ west

d. stain

5. ____________________ domains

e. dense

6. ____________________ needs

f. stew

Use the words in the box to solve the problems below. Medicare

fourteen

gleam

twirl

1. medicine + care = ____________________ 2. ____________________ + nights = fortnight 3. twist + whirl = ____________________ 4. ____________________ + shimmer = glimmer

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 6–7 Vocabulary 113

REVIEW: CHAPTER 3 LESSONS 6–7

2. A tip: ____________________ Eva’s pita.

NAME

Lesson 3.8 Figures of Speech A simile is a comparison of two unlike things using the words like or as. The row of trees stood along the driveway, like soldiers at attention. The surface of the table was as slick and shiny as a newly frozen pond. Read the paragraphs below and underline the seven similes. The day of the Sixth Annual Delridge Kite Festival was crisp and clear with a light steady breeze. The sky was as perfectly blue as the inside of a swimming pool, and the Jiangs gulped deep breaths of fresh ocean air. For the first hour, they wandered the festival, absorbing the sights and sounds like sponges. They stopped to watch an older man wearing a bright red baseball cap as he prepared his enormous octopus kite for flight. His face, browned from the sun, was as creased as a walnut, and he paused to smile at the family before he continued his preparations. The man was more than happy to discuss his hobby with the Jiangs, and they stayed to watch the octopus catch the breeze and inflate like a balloon. The kite’s handler jogged along beneath the wild sea creature, deftly moving the strings like a puppeteer working a marionette. There was a kite-making booth for children at one end of the park, so Max and Victoria spent about an hour crafting their own kites from heavyweight paper, dowel rods, and twine. Around noon, the Jiangs retrieved their cooler from the van. They found an empty picnic table and ate with their heads tilted backward as the kite ballet began. A group of nearly a hundred kites filled the sky like bits of brightly-colored confetti. As each kite caught the wind, it soared effortlessly, like a hawk riding a current with outstretched wings. Slowly the kites moved into formation and began a graceful dance. The Jiangs exchanged looks of amazement and then returned their gaze to the performance in the sky.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 114

Chapter 3 Lesson 8 Vocabulary

NAME

Lesson 3.8 Figures of Speech A metaphor is a comparison of two unlike things without using like or as. The buttercups were a colorful blanket spread across the yard. On the lines, tell which two things in each metaphor are being compared. 1. The leaves of the seedlings were tiny hands reaching toward the sun. ____________________

____________________

2. The three golf balls Preston found were perfectly round eggs nestled in the high grasses beside the pond. ____________________

____________________

3. Once the Nelsons lost power, their house quickly became an icebox. ____________________

____________________

4. The little white dog’s tail was a flag waving proudly in spite of the rain. ____________________

____________________

5. For the kids, the seashells were tiny treasures strewn along the beach. ____________________

____________________

6. When Davis put on his hockey uniform, he became a warrior heading into battle. ____________________

____________________

7. The lights of the city were a constellation speckling the night sky. ____________________

____________________

Phonics Connection On the lines, write four words from the exercise above that contain the diphthongs ou or ow. ____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 3 Lesson 8 Vocabulary 115

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Lesson 3.8 Figures of Speech Personification, which is a type of figurative language, means to give human characteristics to animals or objects. The sun winked slyly at the moon just before it sank below the horizon. The train wrapped itself lazily around the curvy mountain tracks. In both examples above, objects (the sun and the train) are given human qualities (winking slyly and wrapping lazily). Read the sentences below. Underline the word or words that indicate the sentence is an example of personification. 1. The stooped sunflowers dance with one another in the cool morning breeze. 2. The rays of the morning sun skip joyfully into Sierra’s bedroom. 3. The mole looked anxiously at his watch before scurrying across the lawn and shimmying into a hole he had dug early that morning. 4. The bright red maple leaf sighed sorrowfully as it drifted to the ground. 5. The night wind whistled through the trees, calling for a friend to wake up and play. 6. The last piece of chocolate cake beckoned invitingly to Rachel. 7. The moped coughed and sputtered, gasping for breath as its engine died. 8. The camera eagerly captured each moment, tucking it away for another day. 9. The wind angrily rattled the windows, but they refused to open. 10. The chickadees perched in the branches of the old willow tree bickered loudly with one another. On the lines below, write your own examples of personification. Remember, you can personify anything that is not human. 1. ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________________________________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 116

Chapter 3 Lesson 8 Vocabulary

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Lesson 3.8 Figures of Speech Read the following paragraphs. Underline the eight similes and circle the two metaphors. As Juan and his father neared the lake, the paved road disappeared and two strips of gravel became their guide. The crunch of the truck’s tires across the rocks was like someone digging into a bag of potato chips. Suddenly, Juan was hungry for lunch, even though it was only ten in the morning. The four-hour drive from home to the lake had flown by like school recess, mostly because Juan was having so much fun. He and his dad jammed the radio, talked about sports, and carried on like a couple of old fishing buddies. This trip was only their second time out to the lake, but in some ways it felt like they’d been doing it forever. Soon, the boat drifted quietly through the fog like a leaf bobbing along atop the waves. Juan’s dad didn’t say much. He was now a sea captain hunting for the best spot to drop anchor. Every few minutes, Juan asked if they could cast their lines yet. His dad told him that he sounded like a broken record. Finally, Juan’s dad steered the boat into a small area surrounded by foliage. All along the banks, tree branches hung down into the water. They looked like divers frozen at the moment they hit the surface. Juan took a pole from his dad and smiled in anticipation. Then, he cast his line into the water as if he had been asked to throw the first pitch at a baseball game—the honor was more important than actually hitting the plate. Before he knew it, though, Juan had a bite. The line became a laser beam cutting straight through the water’s surface. Juan’s dad told him to slowly reel the line in, a few turns at a time. Like pulling a bucket from a well, he lifted the fish out of the water and into the boat. Juan knew his lunch would be more than a bag of potato chips now.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 3 Lesson 8 Vocabulary 117

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Lesson 3.9 Idioms A group of words that mean something other than what they appear to mean is called an idiom. In the sentence that follows, the idiom get the ball rolling means that things are getting started. Although the deadline was still two months away, Vicente and Erica decided to get the ball rolling early. Read each idiom and definition below. On the line that follows, write a sentence using the idiom. 1. got up on the wrong side of the bed = to be in a bad mood or to have started the day out badly ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. pull your own weight = to do your share ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. cost an arm and a leg = to be very expensive ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. go the extra mile = to go out of one’s way to be helpful or to do a good job ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. give someone a hand = to be helpful ________________________________________________________________________________ 6. under the weather = feeling ill ________________________________________________________________________________ 7. keep your chin up = to try to stay cheerful, even in a difficult situation ________________________________________________________________________________ 8. steal the spotlight = receive all the attention ________________________________________________________________________________ Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 118

Chapter 3 Lesson 9 Vocabulary

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Lesson 3.9 Idioms Underline the idiom in each sentence below. 1. Daniel made a beeline from his school to the library. 2. If he was quick enough, getting a computer would be a piece of cake. 3. Once other students arrived, he wouldn’t have a fighting chance of getting online until after four o’clock. 4. He knew he couldn’t just sail through the rest of the semester without working. 5. Daniel was all thumbs as he fumbled with his bike lock. 6. Daniel couldn’t believe his eyes when he saw the sign that said the computers were down. 7. At first, he felt completely down in the dumps. 8. Then, he remembered that a librarian named Mr. Hernandez had bent over backwards helping him in the past. 9. In the blink of an eye, Daniel found himself working on a computer in the adult section, thanks to Mr. Hernandez. Now, write each idiom next to its definition on the lines provided. reasonable possibility of success __________________________________________________ depressed or sad ________________________________________________________________ straight or direct route __________________________________________________________ tried very hard __________________________________________________________________ clumsy __________________________________________________________________________ easy ____________________________________________________________________________ very quickly ____________________________________________________________________ see something unbelievable ____________________________________________________ get through something easily ____________________________________________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 3 Lesson 9 Vocabulary 119

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Lesson 3.10 Analogies An analogy shows a relationship between two pairs of words. To understand an analogy, it is important to figure out how the words relate to one another. • Bored is to excited as wide is to narrow. Bored is an antonym for excited as wide is an antonym for narrow. • Wheel is to car as page is to book. A wheel is part of a car, just as a page is part of a book. • Bird is to nest as horse is to stable. A nest is the home of a bird, just as a stable is the home of a horse. To read an analogy written in the following format—puppy : dog :: lamb : sheep—you would say,“Puppy is to dog as lamb is to sheep.” The analogies below are incomplete. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that best completes each analogy. 1. (Increase, Reduce) is to decrease as question is to answer. 2. Sprinkle is to sprinkling as (copied, copy) is to copying. 3. Mitten is to hand as sock is to (finger, foot). 4. Nickel is to dollar as (second, hour) is to minute. 5. (Never, Often) is to frequently as vanish is to disappear. 6. (September, March) is to April as breakfast is to lunch. 7. Athlete is to team as (student, principal) is to class. 8. Eight is to ate as carats is to (carrots, vegetables). 9. Refrigerator is to (food, stove) as closet is to clothing. 10. Vacuum is to (sponge, cleaning) as trowel is to gardening. 11. Forty-two is to (twenty-four, twenty-two) as sixty-one is to sixteen. 12. Ballet is to dance as piano is to (trombone, instrument). 13. Lemon is to sour as chocolate is to (sweet, cake).

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 120

Chapter 3 Lesson 10 Vocabulary

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Lesson 3.10 Analogies Replace each picture below with a word that correctly completes the analogy.

1. Moo is to

____________________ as hiss is to snake.

2. Adult is to

____________________ as butterfly is to caterpillar.

3. Freeze is to

____________________ as ancient is to modern.

4.

____________________ is to temperature as scale is to weight.

5. Wisconsin is to

6.

____________________ as star is to constellation.

____________________ is to heat as windmill is to energy.

Read each analogy below. Unscramble the bold word and write it on the line to complete the analogy. 1. neegr ____________________ is to go as red is to stop. 2. Nutmeg is to esicp ____________________ as shrimp is to shellfish. 3. terctimeen ____________________ is to meter as inch is to foot. 4. Prophet is to tpofir ____________________ as oar is to ore. 5. Quill is to porcupine as eelend ____________________ is to pincushion. 6. Two is to dboleu ____________________ as three is to triple. 7. President is to country as mayor is to tyic ____________________. 8. Armor is to knight as lshle ____________________ is to turtle. 9. Flight attendant is to anearpli ____________________ as chef is to kitchen. 10. Bud is to bloom as egg is to icechkn ____________________. Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 3 Lesson 10 Vocabulary 121

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Lesson 3.10 Analogies Complete each analogy below with a word from the box. Remember to figure out how the words are related before you look for the missing word. web

seedling

sport

princess

lead

patients

Detroit

bracelet

1. New Mexico : state :: ____________________ : city 2. cards : game :: basketball : ____________________ 3. ____________________ : mislead :: zero : subzero 4. king : queen :: prince : ____________________ 5. spider : ____________________ :: architect : house 6. ____________________ : plant :: fall : winter 7. earring : ear :: ____________________ : wrist 8. ____________________ : patience :: sundae : Sunday Read each analogy below. Decide which category in the box it matches and write the letter of the category on the line. a. Part–Whole Relationship b. Object–Use Relationship c. Numerical Relationship

d. Grammatical Relationship e. Object–Place Relationship f. Synonym or Antonym Relationship

1. _____ Cactus is to desert as skier is to mountain. 2. _____ Slice is to pizza as button is to shirt. 3. _____ Attract is to repel as generous is to stingy. 4. _____ Book is to library as judge is to courthouse. 5. _____ Geese is to goose as marshmallows is to marshmallow. 6. _____ Seventy-three is to seventy-five as seventy-nine is to eighty-one. 7. _____ Scissors is to cut as mirror is to reflect.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 122

Chapter 3 Lesson 10 Vocabulary

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Lesson 3.10 Analogies Read each analogy below. On the line, explain how the words are related. Ex.: Stallion is to horse as gander is to goose. A stallion is a male horse, just as a gander is a male goose. 1. Sandpaper is to rough as silk is to smooth. ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Thin is to slender as error is to mistake. ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Pedal is to bicycle as hand is to clock. ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Cupboard is to dishes as toolbox is to wrench. ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Eighteen is to nine as twenty-six is to thirteen. ________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Stair is to stare as towed is to toad. ________________________________________________________________________________ Write three analogies of your own using the instructions that follow. 1. Write an analogy in which the words are antonyms. ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Write an analogy that shows a numerical relationship. ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Write an analogy that shows a grammatical relationship (such as plurals, affixes, endings, etc.). __________________________________________________________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 3 Lesson 10 Vocabulary 123

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Review Figures of Speech, Idioms, and Analogies Read each sentence below. If it contains a metaphor, circle M. If it contains a simile, circle S. 1. M S The geese flew in perfect formation, as though they were bound by an invisible string. 2. M S The clock was an impatient observer, tapping its toes as it waited for Jake to

REVIEW: CHAPTER 3 LESSONS 8–10

make his move. 3. M S Sadie heard a sound like bacon sizzling in a frying pan, and then the phone line went dead. 4. M S The leaves were tiny parachutes that floated gently to the ground. 5. M S Fear was a mountain that towered over Will. 6. M S Minh closed her eyes while a cool breeze washed over her like a wave in the ocean. 7. M S Aidan’s unspoken wish hung in the air like a balloon. 8. M S Cameron ignored the cheers of the crowd and listened only to the steady thump of the basketball, ringing in his ears like an ancient drumbeat. 9. M S Mr. Rapinski tried to start the car, but it was a grumpy child who refused to budge from the driveway. 10. M S The rustle of papers, like crisp leaves on a windy autumn day, was the only sound in the classroom. On the lines below, write comparisons based on the given instructions. 1. Write a simile that includes something from nature. ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Write a metaphor that includes something in your classroom. ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Make a comparison using personification. ________________________________________________________________________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 124

Review: Lessons 8–10 Vocabulary

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Review Figures of Speech, Idioms, and Analogies Draw a line to match each idiom in column 1 to its definition in column 2. do your share

2. turn one’s stomach

to study

3. take something lying down

to relax and unwind

4. hit the books

to feel disgusted by something

5. let off steam

take shortcuts

6. pull your weight

to accept something without a fight

7. cut corners

to pinpoint something exactly

The following analogies are out of order. Use the hints in line 2 of each analogy to help you place the words in the correct order. 1. Nephew is to niece as aunt is to uncle. ____________________ is to niece as ____________________ is to nephew. 2. Court is to field as tennis is to baseball. ____________________ is to tennis as field is to ____________________. 3. Wheel is to rectangle as circle is to television. ____________________ is to circle as television is to ____________________. 4. Matt is to Jennifer as Jenny is to Matthew. Matt is to ____________________ as ____________________ is to Jennifer. 5. Attract is to illustration as attraction is to illustrate. Attract is to ____________________ as ____________________ is to illustration. 6. Circus is to theater as actress is to clown. Clown is to ____________________ as actress is to ____________________.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 8–10 Vocabulary 125

REVIEW: CHAPTER 3 LESSONS 8–10

1. hit the nail on the head

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Lesson 4.1 Guide Words and Entry Words Guide words tell you the first and last word on a dictionary page. If the word you are searching for comes between the guide words in alphabetical order, it will appear on that page of the dictionary. For example, objective might appear on a page with the guide words obey and observatory. Kneepad would be found with the guide words kinship and knight. Read the following sentences. Circle the letter beside the pair of guide words that would be found on the same dictionary page as the bold word. 1. The La Brea Tar Pits are located in Los Angeles, California, in an area known as the Miracle Mile. a. architecture • armadillo

b. aristocrat • around

2. The pits ooze asphalt, a sticky substance that has trapped a variety of organisms throughout history. a. opaque • oppose

b. onion • opera

3. The tar pits are famous for the extraordinary specimens of fossilized plants, animals, and insects that have been found there. a. extend • extreme

b. explode • extinct

4. Bison, mammoths, saber-toothed cats, dire wolves, and mastodons are among the mammals that have been found in the pits. a. matchbook • mature

b. massive • matinee

5. Scientists have dated the oldest specimen at about 40,000 years of age. a. spare • species

b. specimen • spelling

6. The oozing asphalt continues to occasionally trap plants and animals today. a. ash • aspen

b. asparagus • assist

7. The George C. Page Museum contains more than three million items. a. mildew • millionaire

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 126

b. millipede • mineral

Chapter 4 Lesson 1 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

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Lesson 4.1 Guide Words and Entry Words When you look up a word in a dictionary, you are looking up an entry word. Entry words, which are usually printed in bold, are often base words. For example, you would look for pretty, not prettier, and silly, not silliness. entry word

pronunciation & syllables

part of speech

meaning

laboratory (lab’ re tor’ ˙ e ¯ ) noun a room in which scientific research and experiments are done e

Write the entry word beside each bold word below. 1. crickets

____________________

5. divided

2. contains

____________________

6. mosquitoes ____________________

3. rubbing

____________________

7. found

____________________

8. soaring

____________________

4. dragonflies ____________________

____________________

Use the dictionary entries below to answer the questions that follow. sincere (sin sêr’) adj. honest; genuine, noun sincerity squash (skwosh) 1. noun a fruit that is related to pumpkins and gourds 2. verb to crush or press flat refrigerator (ri frij’ e ra ¯’ ter) noun a machine or appliance that keeps food cold e

e

1. On the line below, write a sentence using the word squash as a verb. ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Which is an entry word—sincere or sincerity?

____________________

3. Which guide words would you find on the same page as refrigerator? reef • refresh

reflection • regal

refugee • rehearse

4. How many syllables are there in refrigerator?

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

____________________ ____________________

Chapter 4 Lesson 1 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 127

NAME

Lesson 4.2 Word Families A word family is a group of words that have the same base word. Prefixes, suffixes, and endings can be added to a base word to create word families. base word: appoint—appointed, appointment, disappoint, disappointment base word: imagine—imagination, imagining, unimaginable, imaginary Read the clues below. Each clue is followed by three words from the same word family. Circle the letter of the word that matches the clue. 1. without doubt a. doubtless

b. doubtful

c. doubting

b. biologist

c. biologically

b. cheerier

c. cheerfully

b. healthier

c. unhealthy

2. one who studies biology a. biological 3. more cheery a. cheeriest 4. not healthy a. healthful

Create four word families by writing each word from the box under the correct heading. actor disbelief inadmissible recreation action creativity act

create

creation reacting

believable unbelieving

believe

admitting admission admit

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Phonics Connection Which two words in the second exercise contain different spellings of the /sh/ sound? ____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 128

____________________

Chapter 4 Lesson 2 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

NAME

Lesson 4.2 Word Families Read the interview below. Think of a word in the same word family as each bold word and write it on the line. Try not to use base words, when possible. Ryan Blake: First, I’d like to know how you came up with the idea of beginning ____________________ your own charitable ____________________ organization. Aliyah Howard: I was watching the news one night and saw a story about a local food pantry. The director ____________________ was requesting ____________________ donations. I wanted to help ____________________, but it took a few days for my idea to take shape ____________________. RB:

Who assisted ____________________ you in the early stages of planning?

AH:

I wouldn’t have made much progress ____________________ at all without the help of my friends Jess and Anthony, my brother Jarrod, and my dad.

RB:

I know that much of the food you donate comes from your dad’s restaurant. How does that work ____________________?

AH:

So much food is wasted ____________________ every day, and I wanted to find a way to put it to good use ____________________.

RB:

How did other restaurants become involved?

AH:

Jess suggested ____________________ that we call other restaurants and bakeries in the neighborhood to see if they’d be willing to donate.

RB:

What lessons do you feel ____________________ you’ve learned?

AH:

Everyone has the ability to make a change. You just need to be hopeful and believe ____________________ in what you’re tying to accomplish.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 4 Lesson 2 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 129

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Review Guide Words, Entry Words, and Word Families Read the paragraphs below. On the line beside each bold word, write the entry word you would look for in a dictionary. You may not know who Noah Webster was, but you are probably familiar with his life’s work—the first truly American dictionary. Webster, who always had a passion for

REVIEW: CHAPTER 4 LESSONS 1–2

learning ____________________, attended ____________________ college at Yale University. He had hoped to continue his education at law school, but his family was not able to afford it. Instead, Webster became ____________________ a schoolteacher. He wrote ____________________ his own textbook, which was used in American classrooms ____________________ for more than a century. Webster began ____________________ noticing ____________________ that Americans pronounced and spelled words in many different ways. He thought ____________________ that there should be more uniformity to American English and that it shouldn’t ____________________ be exactly the same as British English. Webster’s solution was to write his own dictionary—a dictionary that would be uniquely ____________________ American. Webster did not take this task lightly ____________________. He spent ____________________ many years and lots of money researching ____________________ the origins of words. He gained a working knowledge of approximately 20 languages. He also changed the spellings ____________________ and pronunciations of certain words so that the American form would differ from the British. For example, he changed the spelling of colour to color, musick to music, and plough to plow. In addition, he added thousands of words that had never appeared ____________________ in an American dictionary. It took Noah Webster 27 years to complete An American Dictionary of the English Language. It contained ____________________ about 70,000 entries ____________________ and is one of the best-selling books of all time. Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 130

Review: Lessons 1–2 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

NAME

Review Guide Words, Entry Words, and Word Families Look up each of the bold words in a dictionary. On the lines, write the guide words from the page on which you found the word. ____________________

____________________

2. beneficial

____________________

____________________

3. aqua

____________________

____________________

4. haunch

____________________

____________________

5. vaccine

____________________

____________________

One member of each word family listed below is not a real word. Circle the word in each group that does not belong. Then, write the base word for each family on the line. If you need help, you may use a dictionary. 1. unexperienced

experiencing

experiential

____________________

2. misalign

alignment

realignible

____________________

3. regularity

irregularness

regulation

____________________

4. degreased

greasy

ungreasiest

____________________

5. unshipped

misshippers

shipments

____________________

6. reshapement

misshapen

unshaped

____________________

7. misunderstatement

restating

understated

____________________

8. subdivided

divisionalness

indivisibility

____________________

9. semicouraged

encouraging

courageousness

____________________

10. unemployment

employingest

underemployed

____________________

11. naturalistic

supernaturally

naturing

____________________

12. unneeded

reneeding

neediest

____________________

13. reapproving

disapproval

unapproved

____________________

14. misquoting

unquoted

prequotation

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 1–2 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 131

REVIEW: CHAPTER 4 LESSONS 1–2

1. retirement

NAME

Lesson 4.3 Frequently Used Foreign Words Many words in the English language have been adopted from foreign languages. For example, banana is an African word, frankfurter is a German word, and bronco is a Spanish word. Read each clue below. Choose the word from the box that matches the clue and write it on the line. Then, find the words in the word search puzzle. Words may be written forward, backward, or diagonally. ballet cosmonaut origami cello pajamas adios bagel pumpernickel 1. an Italian word for an instrument related to the violin

____________________

2. a German word for a heavy dark bread

____________________

3. a Russian word for astronaut

____________________

4. a Spanish word for good-bye or farewell

____________________

5. a Japanese word that describes the art of paper folding

____________________

6. an East Indian word for clothes worn for sleeping

____________________

7. a Yiddish word for a doughnut-shaped type of bread

____________________

8. a French word for a classical form of dance

____________________

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Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 132

Chapter 4 Lesson 3 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

NAME

Lesson 4.3 Frequently Used Foreign Words Look up each bold word in a dictionary. On the line beside the word, write the foreign language of origin. Read the definition and then write a sentence correctly using the word. 1. delicatessen

____________________

________________________________________________________________________________ 2. ranch

____________________

________________________________________________________________________________ 3. pastrami

____________________

________________________________________________________________________________ 4. bouquet

____________________

________________________________________________________________________________ 5. judo

____________________

________________________________________________________________________________ 6. carnival

____________________

________________________________________________________________________________ 7. boomerang

____________________

________________________________________________________________________________ 8. yogurt

____________________

________________________________________________________________________________ Phonics Connection 1. Which two bold words contain digraphs? ____________________

____________________

2. In which two words is the /ü/ sound spelled differently? ____________________ Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

____________________ Chapter 4 Lesson 3 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 133

NAME

Lesson 4.4 Word Histories When you look up a word in the dictionary, you can often find the etymology, or word history listed after the definition. Word histories trace the development of words over time. In most dictionaries, the language or country of origin listed first is the most recent. ignore (ig nor’) ˙ verb to pay no attention to something [from French ignorer, from Latin ign¯ ora ¯ re] Read the dictionary definitions and etymologies below, and then answer the questions that follow. poem (p¯ o’ em) noun a piece of writing in which the words are chosen for their sounds ema, from Greek and their meanings; often rhyming [from French poème, from Latin po¯ poi¯ ema, from poiein, create] e

tornado (tor ˙ n¯ a’ d¯ o) noun a severe storm with very high winds and a funnel-shaped cloud [from Spanish tronada, thunderstorm, from tronar, to thunder, from Latin tona ¯ re] umbrella (em brel’ e) noun a device that protects its user from rain or sun; usually made of cloth that covers a collapsible frame [from Italian ombrella, from Latin umbrella, influenced by umbra, shade] e

e

1. Which word is Italian in origin?

____________________

2. What does the Spanish word tronada mean?

____________________

3. On the line, write the languages from which the word poem originates in order from oldest to most recent. ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What does the Greek word poiein mean? ____________________ How do you think this meaning relates to the word poem? ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. What Latin word is part of the word umbrella?

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 134

____________________

Chapter 4 Lesson 4 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

NAME

Lesson 4.4 Word Histories Read each etymology below. On the line, write the letter of the word that matches the etymology. 1. _____ from Middle English rosten, from Old French rostir

a. toilet

2. _____ from Latin persua ¯ d¯ ere, to urge

b. exclaim

3. _____ from Middle English memorie, from Anglo-French, from Latin memoria

c. mystery

4. _____ from French toilette, from Old French tellette

d. automobile

5. _____ from Middle English misterie, from Latin myst¯ erium, erion from Greek must¯

e. klutz

6. _____ from Native American (Massachusett) skunk

f. roast

7. _____ from French exclamer, from Latin excla ¯ ma ¯ re

g. balcony

8. _____ from Yiddish klots, from German kloz, block or lump

h. appreciate

9. _____ from Greek auto and French mobile (from Latin mobilis, to move) 10. _____ from Italian balcone, of Germanic descent 11. _____ from Latin appretiare, to appraise

i. memory

j. persuade k. skunk

Look up each word in a dictionary. On the line, write the word’s etymology. 1. educate ______________________________________________________________________ 2. oxygen ________________________________________________________________________ 3. serpent ________________________________________________________________________ 4. plastic ________________________________________________________________________ 5. curious ________________________________________________________________________ 6. zero __________________________________________________________________________ 7. continent ______________________________________________________________________ 8. Fahrenheit ____________________________________________________________________ Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 4 Lesson 4 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 135

NAME

Review Frequently Used Foreign Words and

Word Histories Read the following sentences. One word in each sentence has been replaced by the name of the country or region from which it originated. Choose the correct foreign word from the box and write it on the line.

REVIEW: CHAPTER 4 LESSONS 3–4

sled debris

carnival potatoes magazine typhoon

kangaroo sherbet

jungle pickle

1. The cool, refreshing [Turkey] slid down the back of my throat, tasting much tarter than the ice cream I had eaten yesterday. ____________________ 2. Bounding across the grassy plain, a [Australia] glanced about to be sure no dingoes lingered nearby.

____________________

3. As Dawn waited impatiently for her mother to arrive, she flipped quickly through a [Arabia].

____________________

4. The hero had to slash her way through the thick leaves and branches of the [India] to find the hidden stone ruins.

____________________

5. Mikela loved eating baked [Spain] with sour cream.

____________________

6. The deli always included a [Holland] and a bag of potato chips with every sandwich.

____________________

7. Whenever enough snow has fallen, the Reynolds’ twins take turns riding a [Dutch] down the hill in their backyard.

____________________

8. The palm trees appeared to pull right out of the ground as the [China] swept across the island.

____________________

9. After the storm, [France] littered the neighborhood equally from one block to the next.

____________________

10. The school [Italy] had rides, games, food, and, best of all, a booth where we could throw whipped-cream pies at our teachers.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 136

____________________

Review: Lessons 3–4 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

NAME

Review Frequently Used Foreign Words and

Word Histories Read the dictionary entries below, and answer the questions that follow. grumble (grum' bel) verb to complain, fuss, or mutter [probably from Dutch grommelen, to mutter] e

melody (mel' e de ¯ ) noun an arrangement of sounds; a pleasant tune [from Middle ¯ dia, from Greek melidi, singing] English melodie, from Old French, from Latin melo e

1. What does grommelen mean in Dutch? ____________________

________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What is the Greek word for singing? ____________________ How do you think it relates to the word melody? ________________________________________________________________________________ Replace each etymology below with the word from the box it matches. cookie

elevate

acrobat

perfume

1. Bryson bought Mom some [French parfum, from Old Italian parfumo, from parfumare, fill with smoke] ____________________ for her birthday. 2. Kerry packed a sandwich, an orange, and a [Dutch koekje, meaning little cake, from Middle Dutch koeke] ____________________ for lunch. 3. When Lucy sprained her ankle, the doctor told her to put ice on it and [Middle ¯ leva ¯re] ____________________ it. English elevaten, from Latin e 4. Julio’s little brother loves to climb on things, so his dad jokes that he will grow up to be an [French acrobate, from Greek akrobats, meaning high walker] ____________________. Phonics Connection Which words from the box contain the schwa sound? ____________________ Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

____________________

____________________ Review: Lessons 3–4 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 137

REVIEW: CHAPTER 4 LESSONS 3–4

2. On the line, write the languages from which the word melody originates in order from oldest to most recent.

NAME

Lesson 4.5 Greek Roots Many words in the English language have Greek roots. Learning the meanings of these roots can help you determine the meanings of some unfamiliar words. chron = time (chronic) bio = life (biology) phon = sound (telephone)

man = hand cycl = circle, ring therm = heat

(manuscript) (cyclone) (thermal)

Read the clues below. Choose the word from the box that matches each clue, and write it on the line. biography

thermos

hom*ophones

manual

tricycle

chronological

Cyclops

1. arranged by order of time

____________________

2. words that sound the same but are spelled differently

____________________

3. the story of a person’s life

____________________

4. a vehicle that has three circular wheels

____________________

5. to do something by hand

____________________

6. a bottle that keeps liquids hot

____________________

7. a creature from Greek mythology that has one round eye

____________________

Read the sentences below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that correctly completes each sentence. 1. Beachwood Middle School won an award for (cycling, recycling) more materials than any other school in the county. 2. Maddy treasures her grandfather’s diary because it (chronicles, chronic) his journey to America and his first years in this country. 3. My parents always turn down the (thermostat, thermometer) at night. 4. Ms. Chaudhry’s class is going to the (phonograph, symphony) on Thursday, and they will get to meet the conductor after the performance.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 138

Chapter 4 Lesson 5 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

NAME

Lesson 4.5 Greek Roots meter = measure (millimeter) graph = write (photograph) scope = see (stethoscope)

micro = small (microchip) ast = star (astronomy) ology = the study of (geology)

Read the sentences below. Underline the Greek root from the pair in parentheses that will correctly complete the bold word. 1. The distance to Toronto was written in kilo______s on the highway sign, so it took us a minute to convert it into miles. (scope, meter) 2. When we finally arrived at the hotel, we were hungry, so we made some popcorn in the ______wave oven in our room. (ast, micro) 3. I was excited to find out that Riley Shaw, who plays a crimin______ expert on TV, was staying in our hotel. (ology, graph) 4. He auto______ed a photo for me, and my mom snapped a few pictures of us together. (graph, meter) 5. Dad always wanted to be an ______ronomer, so tomorrow we’re going to visit the Ontario Science Centre. (micro, ast) 6. Everyone wanted to visit the CN Tower, Toronto’s famous landmark, and my little brother bought a kaleido______ in the gift shop. (meter, scope) Complete each sentence below. If you need help, you may use a dictionary. 1. Musicology is __________________________________________________________________. 2. Psychology is __________________________________________________________________. 3. Volcanology is ________________________________________________________________. 4. Zoology is ____________________________________________________________________. 5. Mythology is __________________________________________________________________.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 4 Lesson 5 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 139

NAME

Lesson 4.6 Latin Roots Like Greek roots, Latin roots can help you determine the meanings of unfamiliar words. aud = hear vid, vis = see mar = sea ped = foot

(audible) (video) (submarine) (pedestal)

ann, enn = year liber = free aqua = water

(anniversary) (liberate) (aquatic)

Circle the word that matches each definition below. 1. occurring once a year biennial

annual

aquatic

2. a large room where people go to hear or see a performance auditorium

audience

revision

liberty

impede

3. freedom liberal

4. an insect that has many pairs of legs pedestrian

aqueduct

millipede

5. a color of bluish-green that looks like water aquamarine

marine

mariner

6. nautical; of or relating to the sea submarine

liberate

maritime

7. the part of a bicycle that is operated by the foot pedestal

pedal

peddler

Phonics Connection Find three words in the activity above in which y makes different sounds, and write them on the lines. ____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 140

____________________

____________________

Chapter 4 Lesson 6 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

NAME

Lesson 4.6 Latin Roots port = carry (transport) rupt = break (abrupt) scrib, script = write (inscribe)

struct = build (structure) tract = pull or drag (attract) claim, clam = shout; cry out (proclaim)

Complete each sentence with a word from the box and circle the Latin roots. subtract

interrupting

subscribes

transportation

exclaimed

1. The Getty family ____________________ to four magazines and two newspapers. 2. “My soccer team made it to the championship!” ____________________ Tyler. 3. It’s hard for Leah to talk on the phone because her twin brothers are always ____________________. 4. Remember to ____________________ your expenses from your profits when you calculate the figures from the yard sale. 5. For his report on the history of ____________________, Luis researched cars, trains, airplanes, and boats. Read each word below. On the first line, define the word. On the second line, write a sentence using it. You may use a dictionary if you need help. 1. structure ______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. erupt __________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. prescribe ______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. portable ______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 4 Lesson 6 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 141

NAME

Review Greek and Latin Roots Use the table to help you remember the meanings of the roots you learned.

REVIEW: CHAPTER 4 LESSONS 5–6

Latin

Greek

aud = hear

aqua = water

chron = time

meter = measure

vid, vis = see

port = carry

bio = life

graph = write

mar = sea

rupt = break

cycl = circle, ring

scope = see

ped = foot

scrib, script = write

micro = small

man = hand

liber = free

struct = build

phon = sound

ast = star

tract = pull

ann, enn = year

ology = the study of

therm = heat

claim, clam = shout; cry out Read the sentences below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that correctly completes each sentence. If the word you chose contains a Greek root, write G on the line. If it contains a Latin root, write L. 1. ______ After they went ice skating at Billings Pond, Jordan and Eliza drank the hot chocolate from a (thermos, thermal). 2. ______ How are you planning to (subscribe, construct) a working volcano for the science fair? 3. ______ The (sociologist, porter) carried the Herreras’ luggage from their car to their room in the hotel. 4. ______ Mackenzie just finished reading a (biography, autograph) of golfer Michelle Wie, and now she wants to take golf lessons. 5. ______ The results of the (chronicle, audition) will be posted on the bulletin board after school on Tuesday. 6. ______ Ms. Whitman said that we should organize the events in (manual, chronological) order. 7. ______ The words assistance and assistants are (hom*ophones, autographs).

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 142

Review: Lessons 5–6 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

NAME

Review Greek and Latin Roots Read the clues below. Choose the word from the box that matches each clue and write the answer in the numbered space in the crossword puzzle. transport aqueduct exclaim chronicle pedestrian cyclone disrupt astronaut microchip attract anniversary Down 1. to pull or draw together 2. a very small piece of electronic equipment 5. an account of events in the order in which they happened 7. a person who travels into space

1.

2. 3.

4.

5.

6. 7. 8.

9.

10.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 5–6 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 143

REVIEW: CHAPTER 4 LESSONS 5–6

Across 1. a pipe that transports water 3. to interrupt or stop the progress of 4. a storm in which the wind blows in rings 6. to say loudly or forcefully 8. a person traveling by foot 9. the day each year marking a special event 10. to carry or move

NAME

Lesson 4.7 Pronunciation Key and Respellings Respellings, or phonetic spellings, are found beside entry words in a dictionary and show how the words should be pronounced. A pronunciation key is a guide to using the letters and symbols found in respellings. A pronunciation key is usually located on every other page in a dictionary. Use the pronunciation key below to answer the questions in this lesson.

On the line, write the letter of the word that contains the sound shown. Use the pronunciation key above as a guide to the sounds. 1. _____ /o ¯/

a. neighborhood

b. mistletoe

c. random

2. _____ /ä/

a. heartless

b. mustache

c. fragrant

3. _____ /e ¯/

a. inventory

b. yearning

c. conservation

4. _____ /zh/

a. unconscious

b. suspension

c. conclusion

5. _____ /u/

a. enthusiastic

b. shove

c. profound

6. _____ /e/

a. rosebush

b. sheep

c. accomplish

7. _____ /ô/

a. fraud

b. clothing

c. mispronounce

e

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 144

Chapter 4 Lesson 7 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

NAME

Lesson 4.7 Pronunciation Key and Respellings Read the following musical definitions. Some of the words have been spelled phonetically. On the line, rewrite each bold word in its common form. The world is filled with di' frent ____________________ musical sti¯lz ____________________. e

Most likely you’ve hûrd ____________________ of rock and roll, country, hip-hop, and jazz, but what about these other genres? AFROBEAT—This West African style of music kem bi¯nz' ____________________ the e

¯ z ____________________ of local fo ¯ k ____________________ music instruments and mel' e de e

with American soul and R&B. FLAMENCO—The tre dish' e nel ____________________ music of the Roma people of Spain. e e

e

It has rith' mic ____________________ clapping and foot stomping that e kum' pe ne ¯z e

e

____________________ highly emotional singing and gi tär' ____________________ playing. RAGA—The droning melody heard in Indian klas' i kel ____________________ music and e

u ¯ ' zhü e le ¯ ____________________ played on the sitar—an in' stre ment e

e

e

____________________ similar to the guitar that can have as many as 20 strings. SAMBA—An up' be ¯ t' ____________________ style of Brazilian music that grew out of ri lij' es e

____________________ songs and dances brôt ____________________ to the re ¯ ' jen e

____________________ by African slaves. SON—Cuban music that blends Spanish-style guitar, South African per cush' en e

e

____________________ instruments, and rousing horns into a danceable mixture. QAWWALI—An Islamic musical style that is hundreds of yêrz ____________________ old. These songs, which last about half an hour, usually begin kwi¯' it le ¯ ____________________ before building to a fast, hypnotic rhythm.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 4 Lesson 7 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 145

NAME

Lesson 4.7 Pronunciation Key and Respellings Read the recipe below. Underline the words that the respellings in the box stand for. You do not need to underline the same word twice. /jüs/ /i vap’ e ra ¯ ts’/ /red’ e ¯/ /jin’ jer/ /leth’ er/ /früt/ /prô’ ses’ er/ e

e e

e

/si¯’ der/ /kuk’ ˙ e ¯/ /stord/ ˙ ’ /sin’ e men/ /so’ fend/ /ap el sôs’/ /uv’ en/ /in kre ¯ s’/ /pe ¯ ’ sez/ e

e e

e

e

e

e

Fruit Leather Ingredients: 5 apples, s! cup apple cider or apple juice, s! teaspoon cinnamon, f! teaspoon nutmeg, f! teaspoon ground ginger You’ll also need: a knife, a blender or food processor, a pot with a lid, a slotted spoon, a wooden spoon, a cookie sheet, and wax paper • Peel and core the apples, and then slice them into pieces. Place them in the pot with the cider or juice, cover, and simmer over medium heat until the apples have softened. If all the moisture evaporates, add a bit more juice. • Allow the mixture to cool for a few minutes. Use the slotted spoon to carefully remove the chunks of fruit. Blend the apples until they form a sauce about the same thickness as applesauce. Add the spices and stir until blended. • Line the cookie sheet with wax paper. Spoon the applesauce onto the sheet, and spread it around at a thickness of about f! inch. • Heat the oven to 140°. Place the cookie sheet in the oven, and leave the door cracked a few inches. In four to six hours, your fruit leather will be done. You can be sure it’s ready when it feels barely sticky to the touch and it peels back easily from the wax paper. • Cut the fruit leather into strips, and wrap it in plastic wrap, or simply roll it up with the wax paper. When stored at room temperature, it lasts about a month. You can also refrigerate or freeze it to increase its life span. * Remember, you should always ask an adult for help in the kitchen when using knives or the stove.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 146

Chapter 4 Lesson 7 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

NAME

Lesson 4.7 Pronunciation Key and Respellings Read the sentences below. Rewrite each bold word using the letters and symbols in the pronunciation key. You do not need to place the accents, or stress marks. If you need help, you may use a dictionary, but remember that not all pronunciation keys are exactly the same. 1. Alvin Ailey, born in Rogers, Texas, in 1931, always had an interest ____________________ in and a talent ____________________ for the arts. 2. Ailey began his dance training ____________________ with two very well-known professionals ____________________—Katherine Dunham and Lester Horton. 3. Mr. Horton founded the first racially ____________________ integrated dance company in the United States, and when he died in 1953, Ailey became the new director ____________________. 4. The Civil Rights Movement was beginning to make ____________________ its way through ____________________ the country, and Ailey supported it by celebrating African-American culture ____________________ through dance. 5. In 1958, Ailey opened his own dance company ____________________ in New York, called the Alvin Ailey American ____________________ Dance Theater. 6. For Ailey, dance was a way to express himself and communicate ____________________ with the world about race ____________________, power, beauty, art, and life. 7. Today, Ailey’s name and work remain among ____________________ the most recognizable in the world ____________________ of dance. Phonics Connection On the lines, write two bold words from above in which the /sh/ sound is not spelled sh. ____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

____________________

Chapter 4 Lesson 7 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 147

NAME

Lesson 4.8 Accent Marks An accent mark (’) tells which syllable of a word is stressed, or said with more ¯ / with the stress on different syllables. Can you hear force. Try saying /e kad’ e me the difference when the correct syllable is stressed? • Some words have two accents. The primary accent is usually bold. The syllable with the secondary accent is said with less force. ¯k’/ /pôl’ e ¯ wôg’/ /ek’ ser si¯z’/ /ûrth’ kwa • Remember, the schwa does not appear in stressed syllables. e

e

e

Read each bold word out loud. Circle the letter of the respelling in which the primary accent mark is placed correctly. 1. multiplied

a. mul’ te pli¯d'

b. mul’ te pli¯d’

2. jury

a. jûr' e ¯

b. jûr e ¯’

3. songbird

a. sông’ bûrd’

b. sông’ bûrd’

4. window

a. win’ do ¯

b. win do ¯’

5. carpenter

a. kär pen’ ter

b. kär’ pen ter

e

e

e

e

e

e

Read the sentences below. Add the primary accent to each bold respelling. 1. One of the best things you can do to help the /en vi¯ ren ment/ is to reduce, reuse, e

e

and /re ¯ si¯ kel/. e

2. Make your /pa ¯ per/ last twice as long by printing on the back of each page. e

3. /in sted/ of buying /bôt ld/ water in plastic bottles, bring your own /re ¯ u ¯ z e bel/ e e

water jug with you /hwâr ev er/ you go. e

4. /do ¯ na ¯ t/ clothes you’ve outgrown to /châr i te ¯ z/, or cut them into rags that can be used in place of paper /tou elz/. e

5. Read /la ¯ belz/, and use products made from recycled /me têr e ¯ elz/. e

e

e

6. If you /viz it/ someplace that doesn’t recycle, write a letter telling the /kum pe ne ¯/ e

¯ n ing/ how they can get started. it’s important to you and /ik spla

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 148

Chapter 4 Lesson 8 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

NAME

Lesson 4.8 Accent Marks All the words listed below contain both a primary and a secondary accent. Circle the primary accent in each word. 1. /e kôm’ e da ¯’ shenz/

5. /wôl’ nut’/

2. /hel’ i kôp’ ter/

6. /sum’ bôd’ e ¯/

3. /rat’l sna ¯ k’/

7. /gâr’ en te ¯ ’/

4. /lo ¯ ’ ke mo ¯ ’ shen/

8. /pär tis’ e pa ¯t’/

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

Some multiple-meaning words are spelled the same but pronounced differently. For example, project can be pronounced /pre jekt’/ or /prôj’ ekt’/. The meaning is different depending on which syllable is stressed. e

Each bold word below has two possible pronunciations. Beside each phonetic spelling, write the letter of the matching definition. kôn’ tract’ ______

a. to shrink; to become infected with 2. minute

min’ it ______

a. a unit of time 3. object

ôb’ jikt ______

ri fu ¯ z’ ______

kem pres’ ______

ref' u ¯ z ______

kôm’ pres’ ______

e

b. squash or press together up set’ ______

a. to tip over or capsize ken dukt’ ______

a. how a person acts

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

e

7. conduct

ôb’ jekt’ ______

b. to decline or be unwilling

a. a soft bandage 6. upset

mi¯ nüt’ ______

b. to disagree or oppose

a. garbage or trash 5. compress

b. a verbal or written agreement

b. small or tiny

a. a noun or pronoun 4. refuse

ken tract’ ______ e

1. contract

up’ set’ ______ b. when the favored team loses kôn’ dukt ______ b. to lead, especially an orchestra

Chapter 4 Lesson 8 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 149

NAME

Review Respellings and Accent Marks

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

Read the newspaper headlines below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses in which the accent or accents are correctly placed. 1. Local Teen Wins (re ¯ je’ nel, re ¯ ’ je nel) Spelling Championship e e

e

e

2. (hev e ¯ ’, hev’ e ¯ ) Weekend Storms Knock Out Power to 150,000 Residents 3. Clausen Withdraws from Race Three Weeks Before (i lek’ shen, i lek shen’) e

e

4. Plans for New East Side Shopping Mall—Why Are (pe ¯ pel’, pe ¯ ’ pel) Protesting? e

e

5. (mi stêr’ e ¯ es, mi’ stêr e ¯ es) Briefcase Found Containing $2,000 e

e

6. (lo ¯ ’ kel, lo ¯ kel’) Funding Cuts Mean Arts School May Have to Shut Its Doors e

e

7. (e non’ e mes, e non e mes’) Donor Contributes $45,000 to Renovation of e

e

e e

e

e

Kaufmann Theater 8. Hollywood Comes to Town for Filming of New (ak shen’, ak’ shen) Flick e

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 150

e

REVIEW: CHAPTER 4 LESSONS 7–8

Look at each picture below. On the line, write the respelling of the word that names the picture. Include the primary accent mark in each respelling.

Review: Lessons 7–8 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

NAME

Review Respellings and Accent Marks Read the sentences below. Underline the stressed syllable in the bold word. On the line, write the word that matches each bold respelling. 1. Chislehurst Caves, located in a suburb of London, are /ak chü e le ¯/ e

____________________ former chalk and flint mines. 2. No one is sure exactly how old the caves are, but the /ûr le ¯ ist/ e e

3. The caves /in klüd/ ____________________ approximately 22 miles of /tun elz/ e

____________________ and passageways. 4. The depth of the caves /vär e ¯ z/ ____________________ from 40 feet below the /sûr fes/ ____________________ to about 150 feet underground. e

5. The temperature of the caves remains /sted e ¯/ ____________________, summer or winter, at 45 /di gre ¯ z/ ____________________ Fahrenheit. 6. The last time the caves were used as mines was in the 1830s, but they have had many /uth er/ ____________________ uses since that time. e

7. Mushrooms grow well in dark, damp /pla ¯ sez/ ____________________, so for some time the caves were used as a sort of mushroom farm. 8. During World War II, the caves were turned into an /e ma ¯ z ing/ e

¯/ ____________________. ____________________ underground /sit e 9. They were a /ken ve ¯ n yent/ ____________________ air raid shelter for Londoners. e

e

10. The caves were wired for /i lek tris i te ¯/ ____________________ and contained a /hôs pi tl/ ____________________, chapel, movie theater, and gym. 11. During the war, the caves were filled with about 15,000 people seeking shelter /ev re/ ¯ ____________________ night. Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 7–8 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 151

REVIEW: CHAPTER 4 LESSONS 7–8

____________________ known /ref er ens/ ____________________ to them is A.D. 1250.

Answer Key

NAME

Review Hard and Soft c and g and the Sounds of s Unscramble the bold letters and write the word that matches each clue. The hint in parentheses will tell you which sound of s the word contains.

Soft g regions largest passages giant

____________________

3. protection against loss from fire or death isurncena (/sh/)

____________________

4. an antonym for negative tipsiove (/z/)

____________________

5. a small spoon onastepo (/s/)

____________________

Dear Diary,

/s/ sound basketball restless frustrate postpone

/z/ sound preservative refusal composition newspaper

My grandparents gave me a season pass to the art museum for a birthday present this year. It’s only four subway stops away from our new apartment, so I can visit as frequently as I like. I’ve been there several times on field trips, but it is so large, that I think it would take a whole lifetime to know every piece of art. The new expansion will be complete this spring, and I can’t wait to see what has changed. When Isabel and I go this weekend, I’d like to spend some time looking at the work of the Impressionists. In Mr. Yang’s class, we recently learned about the issue that a group of artists had in France during the late 1800s. The French Academy was powerful, and they pressured artists to create certain types of work. The group that would later become known as the Impressionists had their own vision of what art could be. Maybe someday I’ll have the pleasure of seeing my own artwork hanging proudly on those same walls.

/zh/ sound precision casually visionary division Hard c directly including located occur rock cooler continues cools back cycle predictable spectacle

Soft c Iceland cycle distance

page 8 1. a, d 2. b, c 3. c, d 4. b, c 5. a, d Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 152

____________________

2. garments; covering for the body oceslth (/z/)

Circle the 4 words below that contain the /sh/ sound of s and underline the 14 words that contain the /z/ sound of s. Do not mark the same word twice.

1. HC, SC 2. SG, HG 3. SC, HC 4. HC, HG 5. SC, HC, HG 6. SG 7. SC page 7 Hard g geyser agree gurgle underground magma longer begins again gallons

1. unique; not common uusalun (/zh/)

page 12 1. /ch/, /k/ 2. /sh/

6. b, d 7. b, c 8. a, c

REVIEW: CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 1–2

page 6 1. began 2. because 3. legend 4. segment 5. electric

/sh/ sound permission expansion sugar tissue

page 9 /s/, /s/, /s/, /z/, /s/, /z/, /z/, /zh/, /z/, /s/, /z/, /zh/, /sh/, /z/, /s/, /sh/, /s/, /z/, /zh/, /zh/ page 10 because refrigerator Antarctica centipede frogs Cinderella 1. soft g 2. hard g 3. soft g 4. hard c 5. soft c 6. hard c

3. /sh/, /ch/, /sh/ 4. /sh/, /ch/, /ch/ 5. /sh/, /sh/, /sh/ 6. /sh/ 7. /k/ 8. /ch/ 9. /ch/, /sh/, /k/ Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 1–2 Phonics 11

NAME

Lesson 1.3 Consonant Digraphs

page 13 1. theater 2. northern 3. Philippines 4. wholesome 5. sympathy 6. whimper 7. pharmacy

• The digraph th can make the unvoiced sound (/th/), as in thumb, and the voiced sound (/th/), as in bother. • The digraph wh can make the /hw/ sound, as in whitewash, and the /h/ sound, as in wholesale. • The digraph ph makes the /f/ sound, as in photocopy. Read the clues below. On the line, write the word from the box that matches the clue and has the sound listed in parentheses. Then, find each word in the word search puzzle. Words may be written forward, backward, or diagonally. theater

Philippines

northern

whimper

sympathy

wholesome

pharmacy

1. a place where people go to watch a movie (/th/) ____________________ 2. an antonym for southern (/th/) ____________________ 3. a country in southeast Asia that has thousands of islands (/f/) ____________________ 4. healthful; nutritious (/h/) ____________________ 5. a feeling of pity or sorrow for another person (/th/) ____________________ 6. a weak, whining sort of cry (/hw/) ____________________ 7. a place where people go to buy prescription medicine (/f/) ____________________ y

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Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 3 Phonics 13

page 11 1. unusual 2. clothes 3. insurance 4. positive 5. teaspoon

Answer Key

NAME

Lesson 1.3 Consonant Digraphs

Answer Key

NAME

The digraphs ck, ng, and gh can come in the middle or at the end of a word. • The digraph ck makes the /k/ sound, as in speckled. • The digraph ng makes the /ng/ sound, as in amazing. • The digraph gh can make the /f/ sound, as in coughed.

NAME

Lesson 1.6 Ti and Ci

Lesson 1.5 More Silent Consonants

The letters ti and ci can stand for the /sh/ sound, as in cautious and magician. When two or three consonants appear together, one letter is sometimes silent. • The letter g can be silent when it comes before n, as in gnome. • The letter d is silent when it comes before g, as in fudge. • The letter h is silent when it follows r, as in rhombus. • The letter t is silent when it comes before ch, as in hatch. • The letters gh can be silent, as in sight.

Complete each sentence below with a word from the box. Circle the digraphs ck, ng, and gh in the words you use.

page 14

scoring block rough entering surprising hockey puck playing enough increasing opposing wearing stick

Hockey

wearing

1. ____________________ is a team sport played on ice by players ____________________ skates.

surprising

2. It is not really ____________________ that hockey is most popular in regions of the world that stay relatively cold, such as Canada, Finland, and Russia.

puck rough 100 miles per hour, hockey can be a ____________________ and dangerous game. enough to keep a 4. Even plenty of protective equipment isn’t always ____________________

3. Because a rubber disc called a ____________________ can fly at speeds of more than

player safe.

entering opposing team from ____________________ scoring a point. keep the ____________________ block 6. The goalie may ____________________ a shot with his or her body, which is well stick padded with protective gear, or he or she may use a hockey ____________________ 5. A goaltender’s job is to keep the puck from ____________________ the net and thus

as the rest of the players do. 7. Most ice hockey teams are comprised of men, but women have played the

playing

game since at least the 1800s. Today, the number of women ____________________

page 18 1. cologne 2. sigh 3. rhythm 4. switch 5. rhinoceros 6. delight 7. pledge 8. foreign 9. hatchet

ogcolne

____________________

2. the sound a person makes when exhaling

hsig

____________________

3. a regular, repeated musical beat

mrythh

____________________ ____________________

4. to trade or exchange

ciwtsh

osrinohcer ____________________

6. great pleasure or joy

lidegth

page 15 ch, 1.4 th,Silent sh,Consonants ng, ch, sh, ch, Th, Lesson ng, ch, th, ng, ng, sh, th, th, th, ch, ng, ch, ch

____________________ ____________________

9. a type of small ax

thaceth

____________________

In some consonant pairs, one letter is silent. • The letter k is silent when it comes before n, as in kneel. • The letter w is silent when it comes before r, as in wreath. • The letter c can be silent when it follows s, as in scissors. • The letter b can be silent when it follows m, as in tomb.

Fill in the blank in each sentence below with a word from the box. Circle the silent letter in the word.

page 16 knight

breadcrumbs

knapsack

wrapper

scenic

thumb

breadcrumbs made from 1. The secret to Aunt Lulu’s meatloaf is using ____________________ homemade sourdough bread.

knapsack

2. The hiker filled her ____________________ with food, water, and a map.

thumb

3. Primates are similar to humans in their use of the opposable ____________________.

scenic

4. The Hahns decided to take the ____________________ route through the mountains, even though it added a couple of hours to their trip.

knight

5. Although any free man could become a ____________________ during the Middle Ages, it was generally men from wealthy families who received this honor.

wrapper

6. The plastic ____________________ covering the CD was difficult to remove. Read each bold word. Circle the word beside it that has the same sound as the underlined letters.

1. clumsy 2. nightmare 3. comb 4. roundtrip 5. sabotage 1. thumb

timber

clumsy

2. knickers

kayak

kaleidoscope

nightmare

3. richer 4. incline

thighs gnaw ____________________ pitcher ____________________ assign ____________________

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 18

page 19 1. dg 2. tch 3. gn 4. gh, rh 5. gn 6. Rh 7. tch 8. gn

thimble

3. lamb

comb

member

mumble

4. wrath

wholesale

roundtrip

woodwind

5. scintillate

sabotage

collision

insurance

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

2. claw

Chapter 1 Lesson 3 Phonics

NAME

14

NAME

Chapter 1 Lesson 4 Phonics

16

Lesson 1.4 Silent Consonants

page 17

The interview below contains 18 words that have the silent consonant pairs kn, wr, sc, and mb. Circle the words and draw a line through each silent letter. Vijay Mehta: When did you first know that you wanted to be a singer and songwriter? Carson Bell: That’s an interesting question. I came from a tightly-knit family, and as a child, my brothers and I spent a great deal of time listening to music. We imitated what we heard, and we eventually started creating our own

hieroglyphics. The Mayan hieroglyphs, as well as inscriptions carved in rock, are

lpgeed

1. cries

1. b, dg 2. c, rh 3. a, gh 4. b, gn 5. a, tch 6. c, dg 7. b, gh 8. c, tch

There were more than 40 Mayan cities, and at one time, the population may have reached two million. The Maya used a system of hieroglyphic writing, similar to Egyptian

eigforn

assign

advanced system of irrigation and also used other farming techniques, like rotating

____________________

7. to promise or swear

hutch

The Maya were proficient in agriculture and practiced the cultivation of maize (a type of corn), beans, squash, peppers, avocados, and pineapples. They had an

crops and building terraces.

8. from another country

pitcher

the Mayan people were somewhat of a mystery to the historians and archaeologists

decline so drastically? they wondered.

5. an animal that has a single horn on its head

thighs

in what is today Guatemala, Belize, Mexico, Honduras, and El Salvador. For many years,

who studied them. What could have made such a powerful and advanced nation

1. perfume

important sources of information for modern-day researchers. The Maya are considered to have been the most advanced ancient civilization in the

Read each word below. Find a rhyming word in the box and write it on the line. Then, cross out the silent letter or letters.

increasing

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

The Mayan civilization was at its strongest between A.D. 250 and A.D. 900. It existed

Read each clue below. The word that matches the clue is written in bold beside it, but the letters are scrambled. Unscramble the letters, and write the word on the line. Hint: Each word will contain a silent consonant pair.

the sport is rapidly ____________________.

page 20

Read the paragraphs below. Circle the 14 words that contain the /sh/ sound spelled ti. Underline the three words that contain the /sh/ sound spelled ci. You do not need to mark the same word twice.

Western Hemisphere. What caused their decline? It may have been vicious wars, natural disasters, or a disease that wiped out large portions of the population. About 800,000 people today speak Mayan languages. Many modern Maya still live an agricultural

straight

hedge

5. touch 6. pledge 7. wait 8. climb

rhyme

gnaw

hutch hedge ____________________ straight ____________________ rhyme ____________________

____________________

Chapter 1 Lesson 5 Phonics

lifestyle like their ancestors did. Their preservation of the Mayan culture and traditions in modern society give it the potential to be passed along for generations to come.

page 21 1. ti 2. ci, ti 3. ti 4. ti 5. ci, ci 6. ti, ti 7. ti 8. ci 9. ci, ci 10. ci, ti 11. ti, ti 12. ti

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 6 Phonics

20

page 22 1. c 2. a 3. a 4. b 5. c 6. b

music. VM:

So you always knew you wanted to write music or somehow be involved in the music industry?

CB:

No, it was actually a much longer road for me. I was taking the scenic way home from work one night, when I did something dumb. I had a paper cut on my thumb, and I tried to look for a bandage in the glove compartment while I was driving.

VM:

What happened?

CB:

Well, I wrecked my car, but luckily I didn’t do too much damage to myself. When I climbed out of the car, my left wrist hurt pretty badly and I had broken my kneecap, but I was okay.

VM:

Did the accident have an impact on your life?

CB:

It absolutely did. I enjoyed my job and working in the field of science, but I didn’t feel the same passion for it as I had for music. I wrestled with the decision of what I really wanted to do with my life. The scenes from my childhood kept replaying themselves over and over in my mind.

VM:

Is that when you went out on a limb and changed your career path?

CB:

Yes, and I’ve never regretted my decision or felt that I had made the

1. lambs 2. budge 3. knew 4. wrinkled 5. hatched 6. neighed 7. designed

wrong choice. I think that knowledge of yourself and the things that are a priority to you are essential to feeling happy and fulfilled.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 4 Phonics 17

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Answer Key 153

Answer Key page 23 1. Possible answers: /th/: they, the /th/: thought, three, thousand, thumb, with 2. Possible answers: chopsticks, characters, chef Review Digraphs, Silent Consonants, ti and ci 3–4.

2. Field; Dreams; movie 3. Chief; nominee; Haley 4. Eddie; donkey 5. lead; Dixie 6. Cheaper; dreams

NAME

Read the paragraphs below and complete the items that follow.

Chopsticks are eating utensils used in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. They are thought to have been invented in China between three and five thousand years ago

NAME

and are used as tongs or pincers. They may be made of wood, bamboo, metal, bone, ivory, or even plastic. In Japan, the word otemoto, Japanese for chopstick, is often

The proper way to hold chopsticks is between the thumb and fingers. The bottom stick stays stationary, while the top stick moves up and down to grasp the food. If the chef has cut the food into small pieces and the rice is sticky enough, eating with chopsticks is simple. 1. On the lines, write two words that contain the /th/ sound and two that contain the /th/ sound. ____________________ ____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

3. Underline the three words that contain silent consonant pairs.

Read the clues below. Choose the word from the box that matches each clue, and write it in the numbered space in the crossword puzzle. rind

mild wild

mastermind hindsight copyright slight colorblind frightened

Underline the pair of letters that correctly completes each bold word below.

1. Visit Cut ’n’ Curl Salon in Linden Shopping Center—our professionally trained beauti______ans (ti, ci) will help you look your best!

2. Atten______on (ti, ci) pet owners! For one weekend only, bring your dog or cat to Petshop Plus and receive a goodie bag FREE with any purchase. 3. Men______on (ti, ci) this ad, and you’ll receive $2.00 off the price of admission when you visit the San Francisco Museum of History’s Egyp______an (ti, ci) exhibit.

Review: Lessons 3–6 Phonics 23

c o p y r i g h t o i s l i g h t n o d r r s m i l d b i n w i l d f r i g h t e n e d i h n m a s t e r m i n d d

page 25 May; today; stayed; Eight; remain; essays; convey; Hooray; praise; neighbor; details; obtain; subway; survey; Friday; pay

page 29 1. b, d 2. a, b, c 3. a, d 4. b 5. a, c

page 26 1. ee 2. ea 3. ie 4. ey 5. ea; ee 6. ea 7. ea

igh might nighttime moonlight plight insight delightful stoplight

1. Chimpanzees; monkeys; comedies

page 30 1. mold

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 154

Down 1. unable to see certain colors 2. a clear view or understanding of a situation after it has occurred 5. the tough outer covering of a fruit

page 28

4. Circle all the digraphs in paragraph 1.

page 24 weigh; halfway; convey; everyday; veil; weekday; disobey; maintain; restrained; mermaid; swaying; reindeer; hey Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

The vowel i can make a long sound when followed by nd, ld, or gh, as in behind, mild, and daylight.

Across 1. legal protection for a creative work, like a book or play 3. small in size or amount 4. moderate; not extreme 6. an antonym for tame 7. scared; having fear 8. a person who directs a project

2. On the lines, list three words in which /ch/ makes different sounds. ____________________

REVIEW: CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 3–6

written on the wrapper in Japanese characters.

1. ci 2. ti 3. ti, ti

page 27 1. ordeal 2. attorney 3. heartbeat 4. antifreeze Lesson 1.9 Vowel Sounds (ind, ild, igh) 5. bittersweet 6. Tennessee 7. kidney 8. parsley 9. cleave

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 9 Phonics

28

ind reminders find ild wild child’s

2. outgrow 3. toll 4. most 5. charcoal 6. blindfold 7. scarecrow 8. scold 9. host 10. boast 11. scroll 12. glow 13. crossroads 14. stroll 15. billfold 16. croak 17. almost page 31 ow, oa, oa, oa, oa, ow, old, old, oa, oll, ow, ow, old, ow, old, ow, old, ow, ow, ow, ow page 32 ee; ee ea ey igh ea; ild ey ow; ee oa; ay ea; ow; ai ea ea; ea old; oa; ea oll page 33 1. sustain, convey 2. uptight, unwinding 3. roaming, withhold 4. oversleep, attorney 5. enrolled, sugarcoat

Answer Key

NAME

Review Vowel Sounds and Diphthongs Read the clues below. On the line, write the word from the box that matches the clue and has the sound listed in parentheses. Then, find each word in the word search puzzle. Words may be written forward, backward, or diagonally. squall oyster compound true scowl shook awkward whirlpool suitable rejoice

6. decay, reins

REVIEW: CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 11–13

Answer Key 6. installed

1. a word that is made of two shorter words (/ou/)

____________________

2. to celebrate with great happiness (/oi/)

____________________

3. a current of water that rotates very quickly (/ü/)

____________________

4. appropriate (/ü/)

____________________

5. clumsy; not graceful (/ô/)

____________________

6. the past tense of the verb shake (/u˙/)

____________________

9. oyster 10. true

7. to glare or frown (/ou/)

____________________

8. a short, violent storm with wind and rain or snow (/ô/)

____________________

9. an edible shellfish that sometimes contains pearls (/oi/)

____________________

10. not false (/ü/)

1. long e, long i 2. long o, long o, long a 3. long e 4. long o/long o, long e 5. long a, long o, long e, a Sounds (oo, ew, ou, ui, ue) long Lesson 1.11 Vowel 6. long e, long o

1. aw 2. all 3. au 4. alk Lesson 1.13 Vowel Diphthongs 5. au 6. aw

When two vowel sounds come together and create a new sound, the combination they form is called a diphthong (dip thông). • The diphthongs oi, as in moist, and oy, as in oyster, make the same sound.

• The letters oo, ew, ou, ui, and ue can make the /ü/ sound, as in uproot, withdrew, regroup, cruise, and true. • The letters oo can also make the /u˙/ sound you hear in shook.

Read each description below. Choose the word from the box that matches the clue. Write it on the line, and circle the diphthong.

page 38 joyfulness

page 34

Read the definitions below. For each word in column 2, underline the letters that make the /ü/ sound and circle the letters that make the /u˙/ sound. On the line, write the letter of the word that matches each definition.

b e occurring later than planned or scheduled 2. ______ f not wearing shoes 3. ______ a an annoyance 4. ______ c the means by which a person earns a living 5. ______ d a small, cozy, or hidden area 6. ______

a

h

m

s

d

g

i

o

e

b

c

a

a

j

w

j

r

t

q

l

l

a

u

q

s

b

n

w

k

h

v

c

r

w

u

l

l

v

u

f

r

n

w

x

i

c

e

o

t

y

h

s

i

s

u

r

a

h

b

d

r

c

a

i

m

k

t

e

r

k

r

q

l

s

o

o

v

d

a

h

r

j

d

h

j

b

s

p

i

k

c

z

b

p

f

e

z

o

m

m

r

w

h

n

o

g

i

l

l

d

t

NAME

NAME

1. ______ the act of chasing something in order to catch it

____________________

f

a. nuisance b. pursuit c. livelihood d. nook e. overdue f. barefoot

Read each sentence below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that has the same /ü/ or /u/ ˙ vowel sound as the word in bold. 1. On Saturday night, a large group (sour, papoose) of friends and relatives will meet

1. papoose 2. booth 3. could; curlicue 4. revenue 5. cruising

employer

annoy

viewpoint

loyalty

Des Moines

40

hoist

____________________

2. I am a verb that means to lift or pull up. You could use me in this sentence: The girls helped their dad _____ the sails.

____________________

employer hoist

3. The word faithfulness is a synonym for me. I describe a quality that good friends or family members show for one another. ____________________

5. I am a feeling of great happiness or pleasure. 6. I am another word for bother or irritate. 7. I am a person’s perspective or the way he or she sees things.

loyalty Des Moines ____________________ joyfulness ____________________ annoy ____________________ viewpoint ____________________

Read the headlines below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that has the same vowel sound as the bold word or words.

1.Adventurer toil Begins Voyage Around the World––by Balloon! Fans Disappointed When Singer Jett Mullin Cancels World Tour 2. convoy Hurricane Chloe Destroys 42 Homes Along Florida Coast 3. moisture Britain’s Royal Family to Visit the States and Meet with President 4.Lesson spoiled 1.13 Vowel Diphthongs 1.

at Clausen Beach for their annual clambake.

2. Mr. Krauss recruits (booth, checkbook) as many people as he can to help shuck

(Moscow, toil)

2.

the corn and rinse the clams in saltwater.

(rebound, convoy)

3. The youngest kids eagerly scour the beach for pieces of driftwood (platoon, could) that are suitable (handbook, curlicue) for the bonfire.

3.

(prowl, moisture)

4. As the sun disappears below the horizon, the moonlight (fatherhood, revenue) fills the beach with a silvery glow.

NAME

4.

(spoiled, moan)

5. Although everyone is a bit more subdued (cruising, clucked) than when the evening began, the mention of dessert infuses the group with energy.

• The diphthongs ou, as in tryout, and ow, as in town, make the same sound. Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

page 39

e

d

n

u

o

p

m

o

c

f

e

n

s

h

j

m

a

o

c

t

u

l

s

w

b

y

e

n

m

p

l

k

r

e

t

r

u

e

q

o

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

1. I am a company or person for whom others work. Some might call me the boss.

4. Founded in 1843, I am Iowa’s capital city.

i c

Review: Lessons 11–13 Phonics

page 41 au; ow; aw; all; ow; ue; oo; ow; oy; au; oi; ow; ue; all; oi; ew; oy; ow; ew; all; ow; ow; au page 42 1. limber 2. cardinal 3. scallop 4. passion 5. diary

Chapter 1 Lesson 13 Phonics

38 Read the paragraphs below. Underline the eight words that contain the /ou/ sound

Chapter 1 Lesson 11 Phonics

34

What kinds of things do you read on the computer? Have you ever tried reading an e-book, or electronic book? What about a newspaper article or your favorite magazine? For many people, it’s difficult to spend long amounts of time in front of a computer screen. They would rather find a more comfortable place in the house to read, like a cozy chair or the couch. A laptop computer is portable, but it is still bulkier than a magazine or small book. It’s also hard for someone reading in a car or outdoors to see the screen in bright light.

page 36 1. Although; audience; all 2. author 3. awful 4. because; caution 5. drawn 6. Beanstalk 7. granddaughter; caught 8. smaller; brawnier 9. taught page 37 1. chalkboard 2. basketball 3. scrawled 4. asphalt 5. crosswalk Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Several renowned companies on the cutting edge of technology are now working on some ideas that would forever change the way people read. How does the idea of electronic paper sound to you? It’s difficult to explain exactly how this concept works. The basic idea, though, is that the battery-powered paper is filled with tiny capsules. Each capsule contains black and white particles that carry an electric charge. Using the electricity in each capsule, a computer program determines whether the black or white particles are allowed to come to the surface of the paper. The black

1. regenel 2. erome 3. mounteneer 4. florel 5. ancesters 6. koale 7. pyremids e e e e e e e e e

page 35 oo, oo, ew, ew, oo, oo, oo, ue, ue, ou, ui, ui, ou, ue, ui, oo

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

spelled ou. Circle the seven words that contain the /ou/ sound spelled ow. You do not need to mark the same word more than once.

NAME particles form patterns that create letters, symbols, and words. When you “turn the

Lesson 1.14 The Schwa Sound

page,” different particles rise to the surface and form the words and pictures on the next page of the book or magazine. Although it seems like something that might be found in a science fiction novel, it’s

page 43

Read the following paragraphs. For each word in bold, circle the vowel or vowels that make the schwa sound.

possible that in the future a single piece of electronic paper could somehow hold the

Throughout history, our nation and its citizens have had to endure a number of

contents of an entire book. The countdown to the books of the future has begun.

difficult and trying moments. Few events were as sad as the assassinations of presidents Abraham Lincoln and John F. Kennedy. Although they are not discussed as often, the deaths of James Garfield and William McKinley were equally shocking to the Americans of their time. Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

page 40 1. compound 2. rejoice 3. whirlpool 4. suitable 5. awkward 6. shook 7. scowl 8. squall

Chapter 1 Lesson 13 Phonics 39

President James Garfield took office on March 4, 1881. Only four months later, on July 2, Garfield was walking through a Washington, D.C., railroad station when Charles J. Guiteau shot him. Garfield lived for another 80 days, but medical knowledge during that time was limited. On September 19, President Garfield passed away. He had been president for only six and a half months. President William McKinley began his second term in March 1901. Due to America’s victory in the Spanish-American War, McKinley had easily defeated William Jennings Bryan in the previous fall’s election. In September 1901, McKinley traveled to Buffalo, New York, to give a speech at the Pan-American Exposition. It was at this World’s Fair that tragedy would strike. On September 6, McKinley stood at the front of a line of people waiting to shake the president’s hand. Slowly, Leon Czolgosz made his way through the line. Czolgosz was an anarchist—someone who believes that all forms of government are bad and should be abolished. Although many anarchists were peaceful, others performed violent acts. When Czolgosz reached the front of the line, he shot McKinley and was immediately taken into custody. McKinley was rushed to the hospital in an ambulance, making him the first president to ride in an automobile. Sadly, McKinley died of his wounds eight days later.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 14 Phonics 43

Answer Key 155

NAME

Answer Key

Lesson 1.17 More r-Controlled Vowels (air, are, ear, eer) • The letters air and are can make the same sound, as in repair and prepare. • The letters ear and eer can make the same sound, as in appear and steer. The letters ear can also make the sound you hear in swear.

page 44 1. tropical 2. mammals 3. Environmental 4. Local, animals 5. materials, travel 6. people, jungle 7. petals 8. resembles Lesson 1.14 The Schwa Sound 9. muscles, tackle

4. years 5. backyard 6. everything 7. hyena 8. yonder

e

nui’·sance

ser’·mon

pa·go’·da

Read each definition and the word beside it. On the line, rewrite the word without the schwa or schwas. 1. a tradition or habit

cus’·tem

2. materials made of baked clay

ce·ram’·ics ____________________

3. relating to mail service or post offices

po’·stel

4. a person who travels in outer space

as’·tre·not’ ____________________

____________________

5. a married male

hus’·bend ____________________

e

e

____________________

e

e

e

Read the sentences below. Underline the stressed syllable or syllables in each bold word and circle the vowel or vowels that make the schwa sound. e

1. In 1910, Robert Baden-Powell founded the Girl Guides of Great Britain as a coun·ter·part to the group for boys he began in 1908. 2. In 1912, Juliette Low started the Girl Scouts, a sim·i·lar organization in the United States. 3. The Girl Scouts and Girl Guides both fo·cus on leadership, char·ac·ter, community, outdoor activities, and service. 4. In A·mer·i·ca, the five age groups are called the Daisies, Brownies, Juniors, Ca·dettes, and Seniors. 5. Today, there are nearly 10 mil·lion members in 144 countries.

page 46 1. policy 2. yonder 3. rhythm 4. pastry 5. firefly 6. enemy 7. myself 8. mythical

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 1 Lesson 14 Phonics 45

page 47 1. long e, long e, long i, y 2. y, long i 3. long e, long e, y 4. long i, long e, short i/long e 5. long e, long e

gear

beware

questionnaire

rare

questionnaire ____________________

steer rare smear ____________________ solitaire ____________________ gear ____________________ beware ____________________ ____________________

____________________

5. to spread a sticky or greasy material

8. to be cautious of something

Read each sentence below. On the line, write the letter combination (air, are, eer, or ear) that correctly completes each bold word.

1. are 2. air 3. air 4. eer 5. are, ear, are

1. Bill Gates is the owner of the largest softw__________ company in the world.

2. Not only is he a billion__________e, but he is also the richest person in the world.

3. Even at a young age, Gates had a fl__________ for math and science.

4. Throughout his car__________, Gates has had many challenges.

5. Bill Gates and his wife, Melinda, are aw__________ of how fortunate they are, so each y__________ they sh__________ their wealth by donating millions of dollars to charity.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

page 51 1. disappear 2. millionaire 3. solitaire 4. career 5. wearable 6. auctioneer 7. smeared 8. bear 1. fairly 2. nearly 3. peer 4. threadbare 5. dearest NAME

Review Schwa, the Sounds of y, and r-controlled Vowels

page 52

For each bold word, underline the stressed syllable, and circle the vowel or vowels that make the schwa sound. Too many an·i·mals in the world don’t have a place to call home or peo·ple to protect them. Thou·sands of these animals get a sec·ond chance at a spec·ial place

called Best Friends Animal Sanctuary, located in Kanab, Utah. The motto of Best Friends is “No more homeless pets.” Today, more than 1,500 animals live at the sanctuary. There are plenty of com·mon house pets, like cats and dogs, but Best Friends is also home to horses, pigs, goats, owls, rabbits, and doz·ens of other va·ri·e·ties of critters. Some are sick, and many were a·ban·doned or a·bused. Best Friends wel·comes all animals, regardless of their history. Once an animal enters the sanctuary, it will be treated with kindness and respect. Hundreds of animals find good homes through the ef·forts of Best Friends. The animals that don’t find new families are still guaranteed a safe and happy place to live forever. Best Friends works with groups all a·round the country to make the lives of animals better. They educate people about the importance of spaying and neutering pets. They also have the best interests of animals in mind when a crisis oc·curs. There’s no doubt that the furry and feathered crea·tures of the world are lucky to have the folks at Best Friends looking out for them. On the line, write the sound y makes in each bold word (long i, short i, y, or long e). Circle the word beside it that contains the same sound. 1. typical

icy Olympian magnify

Chapter 1 Lesson 17 Phonics

50

ar: Answers will vary. er: Answers will vary. ur: Answers will vary. page 49 smirk; seashore; swerve; mirth; midterm; sunburn; bizarre; lifeguard; lurking; emerge; bookmark; purse; carnivore; adverb; suburb; splurge; affordable; postmark; quirky; thirst; discord; proverb; whirl

volunteer

volunteer

4. not common; something that doesn’t occur often

page 48 Alvarez’ Scarf; Girl Monster; Walter; Myers North Birmingham; Christopher; Curtis Charlotte Summer; German; Soldier Morning; Girl; Dorris Iceberg; Hermit; Arthur Virginia Sports Piranhas Borning Garden; Burnett Survival; Gordon; Korman

steer

____________________

3. to guide a vehicle using a wheel

____________________

graciously

1. short i; rhythm 2. long i; magnify 3. y; yowl 4. long e; stingy 2. deny

1. anchovy 2. physician 3. spying

solitaire

2. a list of questions used for gathering information

REVIEW: CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 14–17

In the following words, the vowel that makes the /e/ sound is set in bold. Notice how it appears only in unstressed syllables. cas·sette’

smear

1. a person who offers to do something, often for free

6. a game of cards one plays alone

The schwa sound occurs in unstressed syllables. For example, in the word ba’· sin the first syllable is stressed. The second syllable contains the schwa sound.

en’·e·my

page 50

7. equipment

NAME

page 45 1. custom 2. ceramics 3. postal 4. astronaut 5. husband

Read the definitions below. On the line, write the word from the box that matches each definition, and circle the r-controlled vowel letter combination.

yucca yield financially dying canyon

____________________

policy

rhythm

nylon

gypsy

magnify

3. canyon

____________________

colony

yowl

mystery

4. terribly

____________________

stingy

Egypt

gymnast

5. crypt

____________________

occupy

yodel

physics

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 14–17 Phonics

52

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 156

Answer Key

• Form the plural of a word that ends with a consonant and o by adding es. cargo, cargoes halo, haloes • Some words, such as photo, piano, and rhino, do not follow this pattern. Just add s to make their plurals. Use a dictionary to check plural spellings. Choose the word from the box that matches each clue below and write it on the line. Then, find the plural form of the word in the word search puzzle. pistachio

solo

flamingo

tomato

burrito

pueblo

1. a juicy red fruit that is usually used as a vegetable

Answer Key

2. an Australian animal that carries its young in a pouch

____________________

3. a light green edible nut

____________________

4. a tortilla stuffed with meat, rice, beans, and cheese

____________________

5. a bright pink tropical bird that has long, skinny legs

____________________

6. to do something alone

____________________

7. a Native American village or community of the Southwest

5. short i; physics page 53 carpet: particular, start, Karla turning: together, first, similar, wander, concerned, swirl, burst, Silverstein, familiar orchid: forms, short, important, sorts, brainstorming Lesson 2.1 Base Words and Endings fairly: sharing, carefully clear: career, Shakespeare NAME

A base word is a word without endings added to it. • Double the consonant before adding ed or ing to a base word that has a short vowel sound and ends in a consonant.(snap, snapped, snapping) • If a base word ends with e, drop the e before adding ed or ing. (excite, excited, exciting) • If a base word ends with y, change the y to i before adding ed. Do not change the y before adding ing. (occupy, occupied, occupying)

page 54

Fill in the blanks in the chart below. Base Word

Add ed

____________________

cherish

____________________

cherishing

struggle

____________________

____________________

____________________

formatted

____________________

scribble

____________________

enforce

____________________

format

identify untie ____________________ ____________________

Add ing

cherished struggled scribbled enforced

identified untied

struggling formatting scribbling ____________________ enforcing ____________________ identifying ____________________ untying ____________________

On the line, write the base word for each word in bold. 1. The chef’s hands were covered in food after she finished demonstrating

1. demonstrate 2. accompany 3. create

____________________ to the class how to properly mix the ingredients.

2. Max accompanied ____________________ Basir to his audition on Monday.

3. A road crew is creating ____________________ a huge, muddy mess on our block while they repair the street.

page 57 most excited, squeakier, most frustrating, more smoothly, most interesting, earlier, most popular, safer page 58 playing, inspired, hired, named, measured, completed, sewing, finished, flying, tried, defending, waved, announced

Phonics Connection Circle the words in the chart in which y makes the long i sound.

identify, identifying, untying Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 2 Lesson 1 Word Structure

54

page 55 means; fit; produces; uses; switch; save; burn; Lesson 2.2 Comparative Endings purchase; teaches; wishes; encourages; passes; means; save; exchange NAME

The comparative endings -er and -est change the meanings of base words. • Add er to mean more when comparing two things. Add est to mean most when comparing three or more things. deeper = more deep deepest = most deep • For words that end in e, drop the e and add er or est. For words that end in a consonant plus y, change the y to i before adding er or est. close, closer, closest early, earlier, earliest • For words that have a short vowel sound and end in a consonant, double the consonant before adding er or est. thin, thinner, thinnest

drip occupy

relax drag

page 60 trees, bushes, houses, poles, stories, countries, leaves, blooms, masses, vines, conditions, branches, bridges, roofs, enemies, lives

page 56

Fill in the blanks below with the correct form of the comparative word. Base Word

Add er

shiny

____________________

____________________

rarer

____________________

rare red ____________________ ____________________

angry

light lovely ____________________ ____________________

free

shallow

shinier

redder angrier lighter ____________________ lovelier ____________________ freer ____________________

Add est

sniniest rarest

____________________

reddest

____________________

____________________

angriest

lightest loveliest

freest shallowest slimmest ____________________ strangest ____________________ ____________________

____________________

shallower

____________________

slim

____________________

strange

____________________

slimmer stranger rougher ____________________

roughest

rough sleepy ____________________ ____________________

sleepier

sleepiest

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 56

polish empty

page 61 1. tomato 2. kangaroo 3. pistachio 4. burrito 5. flamingo 6. solo 7. pueblo

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Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

page 59 Danny: easier, funniest, latest Austin: kinder, gentler, most compassionate, toughest, smartest, most original, brighter Christina: younger, most trustworthy, healthier, more interesting, bigger

kangaroo

____________________

Chapter 2 Lesson 3 Word Structure 61

page 62 1. children 2. trout 3. feet 4. oasis 5. species 6. teeth 7. mouse 8. deer 9. goose’s

page 63 1. Answers will vary but should include the word teeth. 2. Answers will vary but should include the word traffic. 3. Answers will vary but should include the word women. 4. Answers will vary but should include the word fish. 5. Answers will vary but should include the word feet. 6. Answers will vary but should include the word moose. 1. tooth, fish 2. tooth, moose’s; foot page 64 PL, PP, SP, SP, PL, SP, PL, PL, PP

Chapter 2 Lesson 2 Word Structure

Answer Key 157

NAME

Lesson 2.6 Compound Words

Answer Key

A compound word is a combination of two shorter words. hand + shake = handshake

candle + stick = candlestick

Some words are called open compounds. In open compounds, there is a space between the two words, but they refer to a single thing. home run

page 65 1. Women’s 2. event’s 3. Angelou’s 4. world’s 5. Veterans’ 6. Nation’s 7. shuttles’ 1. the 2. the 3. the 4. the 5. the

page 68 1. firewood 2. wheelchair 3. barefoot 4. rattlesnake 5. turtleneck 6. jellyfish 1.

2.

5.

6. jelly +

page 66

Fill in the blanks to complete the chart below.

REVIEW: CHAPTER 2 LESSONS 3–5

Plural Possessive

Singular

Plural

colony

____________________ ____________________ ____________________

coach

banjo

____________________

Singular Possessive

colony’s

waltz’s

coach’s

____________________ banjo’s

colonies’ waltzes’ coaches’ ____________________ banjoes’ ____________________ cities’ ____________________ ____________________

city’s ____________________ portfolio’s portfolios’ portfolio ____________________ physician’s ____________________ physicians’ physician physicians ____________________ ____________________ mouse’s ____________________ mice’s mouse ____________________ mice ____________________ mosquitoes’ mosquito ____________________ mosquitoes mosquito’s ____________________ ____________________ city

____________________

= ____________________

= ____________________

+

+

= ____________________

= ____________________

= ____________________

Form a common compound word by drawing a line to match each word in column 1 to a word in column 2. Write the compound word on the line.

NAME

waltz

= ____________________

+

4.

Review Plurals, Irregular Plurals, and Possessives

____________________

+

3. bare +

drums’ beat song’s lyrics guitarist’s solo musicians’ energy keyboard’s melody

colonies waltzes ____________________ coaches ____________________ banjoes ____________________ cities ____________________ portfolios ____________________

high school

Use the pictures to help you fill in the blanks in the problems below.

Read the sentences below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that correctly completes each sentence. 1. Andy enjoys reading nonfiction and usually chooses (biographies, biographys) or

1. biographies; stories 2. mysteries; novels 3. elves; ogres; folktales; legends 4. comics 5. classes 6. cookbooks; recipes; Burritos; Mangoes true-adventure (storyes, stories).

2. Tanner prefers (mysterys, mysteries) and crime (novels, noveles).

3. Dwarves, (elfs, elves), and (ogres, ogres’) are not uncommon characters in the (folktales, folktaleses) and (legends, legendes) that Shelby reads.

4. Natalie has a large collection of Japanese (comices, comics) that she orders from online specialty stores.

5. All three sixth-grade (class’s, classes) at Washington Heights Middle School are

1. water

pool

2. loud

engine

3. whirl

weed

4. fire

melon

5. sea

speaker

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

watermelon loudspeaker whirlpool ____________________ fire engine ____________________ seaweed ____________________ ____________________

____________________

Chapter 2 Lesson 6 Word Structure

68

page 69 news/paper; back/yards; after/noons; week/ends; out/doors; in/side; play/ground; green/house; basket/ball; sand/box; With/out; worth/while page 70 There’re; aren’t; I’d; haven’t; I’m; you’d; don’t; They’re; won’t; It’s; they’ve; aren’t; They’ll; let’s; might’ve; here’s; you’re; shouldn’t; What’re

reading J. R. R. Tolkien’s book The Hobbit.

6. Sydney and Evan love looking through their mom’s (cookbooks, cookbookes) and making interesting (recipies, recipes), like Cheesy Chicken (Burritoes, Burritos) or Upside-Down Cake with (Mangoes, Mango’s).

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 3–5 Word Structure

66

page 67 1. Ladies’ Reading Club 2. classes’ schedules 3. mother’s purse 4. children’s toys 5. person’s participation 6. Jake’s internship 7. Trout’s mouths 1. schedules, technology 2. drawing, auction Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 158

page 71 1. have’nt; haven’t 2. Im; I’m 3. instructors; instructor’s 4. won’t; won’t 5. thats; that’s 6. theres; there’s 7. have’nt; haven’t 8. were; we’re 9. winds; wind’s 1. away, stay, today, anyway 2. parachuting, assured

page 72 anybody, anyone, anything anywhere, fireplace, fireworks, firewood, firefly, firefighter, homemade, hometown, homegrown, homesick, homeroom, underground, underwater, undercover, underwear 1. corn/bread 2. ice / skate 3. tea/cup 4. foot/print 5. horse/back 6. candle/light 7. bee/hive 8. polar / bear 9. button/hole page 73 1. you’re; you are 2. you’ll; you will 3. can’t; can not 4. It’s; it is 5. wasn’t; was not 6. aren’t; haven’t; are not, have not 7. shouldn’t; don’t; should not, do not 8. There’re; there are page 74 inseparable; infrequent; immature; irrational; irresistible; impatiently; inefficient; immovable; illogical; inexperience; incapable; impolite; incorrect page 75 1. engulf

Answer Key

Answer Key 2. encouraged 3. enrolled 4. employed 5. enlisted 6. enriched 7. envisioned 8. ensured

3. multilingual 4. unicolor 5. bicentennial 6. unicorn 7. multicultural 8. trilogy 9. multipurpose

page 76 1. cohost; host 2. midstream; stream 3. reproduce; produce 4. rewrite; write

page 79 misunderstanding, mistreat, disobeying, misjudged, misled, discouraged, disappeared, displeased, misbehavior

1. cofounded; founded together 2. rediscover; discover again 3. midsummer; middle of the summer 4. cowritten; written together 5. retold; told again Lesson 2.8 Prefixes 6. reassured; assured again

• The suffixes -ness and -ship mean state of being or condition of. roughness = state of being rough partnership = state of being a partner • The suffixes -ance and -ence mean state of being or the act of. guidance = the act of guiding existence = the state of existing

interstate = between states semisweet = partly sweet nonproductive = not productive

Add a suffix to each base word below. Write the new word on the first line. On the second line, write the definition of the word. Then, circle each word in the word search puzzle. Words may be written forward, backward, or diagonally.

page 77

1. fair + ness = ____________________ ________________________________________________

Read the words and the clues below. Circle the prefixes in the words in the second column. On the line, write the letter of the word that matches each clue.

h partly conscious 1. ______ e connect among one another 2. ______ l not factual 3. ______ a half solid 4. ______ j between nations 5. ______ b not academic 6. ______ k partly dry 7. ______ d not fiction 8. ______ f between coasts 9. ______ c half a circle 10. ______ i not specific 11. ______ g between colleges 12. ______

2. occur + ence = ____________________ ____________________________________________

a. semisolid

3. assist + ance = ____________________ ____________________________________________

b. nonacademic c. semicircle

6. fragrant + ance = ____________________ __________________________________________

e. interconnect

7. innocent + ence = ____________________ ________________________________________

f. intercoastal

8. citizen + ship = ____________________ ____________________________________________

g. intercollegiate h. semiconscious i. nonspecific j. international k. semidry l. nonfactual

1. semicircle, intercollegiate, nonspecific 2. semicircle, nonspecific 1. On the lines, write the words that contain the soft c and soft g sounds. ____________________

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

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Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

2. Which two words contain both the soft and hard sounds of c? ____________________

4. companion + ship = ____________________ ________________________________________ 5. round + ness = ____________________ ____________________________________________

d. nonfiction

Phonics Connection Use the words in column 2 to answer the questions that follow.

____________________

page 82 1. fairness; the state of being fair 2. occurrence; the act of page 80 occurring Animation; positions; 3. assistance; the act of deception; calculations; assisting attention; production; 4. companionship; the state television of being a companion addition; illustrations; Lesson 2.9 Suffixes 5. roundness; the state of precision; concentration being round invention; attraction 6. fragrance; the state of being fragrant page 81 7. innocence; the state of Answers will vary. Possible being innocent answers: 8. citizenship; the state of 1. Mary Cassatt was a being a citizen painter who often used women and children as her subjects. 2. The inventor’s workshop was filled with all kinds of tools and parts. 3. The novelist will be signing books at the library on Friday. page 83 4. The governor hopes to steamy; ancestral; finally; one day become teary; grassy; brightly; president. traditional; magical; mossy; 5. The biologist peered friendly; immediately; stuffy; eagerly through the microscope, uncertain of musty; kindly; essential; NAME

NAME

• The prefix inter- means between or among. • The prefix semi- means partly or half. • The prefix non- means not.

what she might find. 6. Bryan has been a collector of White Sox memorabilia since he was seven. 7. Muhammad Ali was one of the greatest boxers of all time. 8. The conductor bowed to the audience, who gave her a standing ovation.

Chapter 2 Lesson 9 Word Structure

82

____________________

Chapter 2 Lesson 8 Word Structure 77

page 78 1. triathlon 2. bifocals Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Answer Key 159

Answer Key rainy; abruptly; inky; helpfully; cheery; thoughtfully; gently; approval

4. fasten/er; cautious/ly 5. disgusting/ly; realist/ic Review Prefixes and Suffixes 6. jerki/ly; strategic/al/ly 7. conversation/al; exceptional/ly 8. spotless/ness 9. companion/ship; playful/ly NAME

Use the table to help you remember the meanings of the prefixes you learned. in-, im-, ir-, il-, non-, dis- = not

semi- = half, partly

en-, em- = in, into, or make

inter- = between, among

mid- = middle

mis- = wrongly or badly

bi- = two

tri- = three

multi- = many

Read the clues below. Choose the word from the box that matches each clue. Write the answers in the numbered spaces in the crossword puzzle. rearrange inexpensive misjudge interstate coexist

Across 3. to exist 9. together 10. 7. between states 11. 8. a horned dinosaur

page 86

dishonest nonspecific enlarge semiprivate triceratops immature Down

not expensive to make larger to wrongly judge

1. not specific 2. not mature 4. partly private

5. arrange again 6. not honest

n i c o e x i s t m n e r d m s m e i n t e r s t a t e p t r i c e r a t o p s t e p r h u c r r o r i n e x p e n s i v e i a e n l a r g e e f v n e i a g m i s j u d g e c t e t e Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lessons 8–9 Word Structure

page 87 Lesson 2.10 Syllabication 1. Depression 2. farmers, artists, teachers, hardships 3. competition 4. leadership 5. financial 6. explanation 7. slowly NAME

86

Words can be divided into parts called syllables. Each syllable has one vowel sound, so the number of a word’s vowel sounds equals the number of syllables. laugh·ing = 2 vowel sounds = 2 syllables car·ou·sel = 3 vowel sounds = 3 syllables o·per·a·tion = 4 vowel sounds = 4 syllables

Read the paragraphs below. Next to each bold word write the number of vowel sounds you hear when you say the word out loud. Would ______ you ever consider ______ eating food grown in manure ______ inside

a cave or a dark cellar? How do you feel about consuming ______ fungus ______? You

______ to the origins of the mushrooms they eat.

Although ______ there are many varieties ______ of mushrooms, only a limited number

exceedingly ______ careful. About 200 species of fungi are poisonous ______. It’s not always easy ______ to tell which mushrooms are dangerous ______. There’s no need ______ to worry

page 88 1, 3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 1, 1, 2, 4, 3, 2, 1, 4, 3, 2, 3, 1, 3, 2, 2, 4, 3, 3, 3, 1, 1, 2

about the mushrooms you buy at the store, however ______. They are raised for the purpose ______ of selling in markets, or they are gathered ______ by experienced ______ hunters. Truffles are the most valuable ______ fungi. They grow underground ______ and are

difficult to find. Specially-trained ______ pigs and dogs are often used ______ to locate them in the wild. It’s worth all the trouble, though ______: a pound of truffles can sell for as much as 700 dollars ______!

Phonics Connection Find three bold words that contain the /e/ sound. Write them on the lines and circle the letter or letters that make the sound. Answers will vary. Possible answers:

consider

____________________

fungus

____________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 160

page 91

Jambalaya 2 teaspoons oil

2 teaspoons paprika

s! pound chicken breast

!f teaspoon ground red pepper

7 ounces sliced turkey kielbasa

!s teaspoon salt

1 cup diced onion

1 teaspoon each dried basil and oregano

1 diced green bell pepper

2 tablespoons tomato paste

s! cup chopped celery

1 can diced tomatoes with green chiles

1 !s cups white rice

!s pound cleaned, raw shrimp

3 cups chicken broth

!f cup chopped green onions

1. Cut the chicken into little pieces. (Be sure to wash your hands thoroughly each time you touch raw meat or seafood.) Heat the oil in a large saucepan. Cook the chicken for about five minutes, and then transfer it to another dish. 2. Add the onion, pepper, and celery to the pan. Cook, stirring occasionally, for about 8 minutes. Add the kielbasa, and cook for an additional 5 minutes. 3. Add the rice, broth, and seasonings to the vegetable mixture. Bring it to a boil, then cover it and reduce the heat to low. Simmer for about 15 minutes. 4. Add the chicken, tomato paste, and diced tomatoes, and cook for 10 minutes. 5. Add the shrimp and green onions, and cook just until the shrimp turn pink. 6. Garnish with green onions, and serve with hot sauce. Recipe yields 6 servings. * Remember, you should always ask an adult for help in the kitchen when using knives or the stove.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Review: Lesson 10 Word Structure 91

dangerous

Chapter 2 Lesson 10 Word Structure

page 89 cup/cake; lem/on; ham/bur/ger; chim/ney a/corn; grass/hop/per; jel/ly/fish; plan/ets; i/ci/cles page 90 sub/ma/rine, 3 pub/lic, 2; a/long, 2

page 92 1. recall 2. happen, quick 3. briefly 4. origin 5. probable

____________________

88

page 85 1. Zoologic/al; education/al 2. expectant/ly; effortless/ly 3. graceful/ly; mossi/ness

Read the recipe below. Underline one-syllable bold words once and two-syllable bold words twice. Circle three-syllable bold words.

are edible ______. People who forage ______ for mushrooms in the wild ______ must be

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

1. ambitious, cautious, infectious 2. adventurous, miraculous, furious

NAME

Review Syllabication

might like mushrooms ______ on a pizza, but most ______ people give little thought

e

REVIEW: CHAPTER 2 LESSONS 8–9

uni- = one

1. compliment, insult 2. question, answer 3. stiff, flexible 4. ancient, modern 5. public, private page 93 cowardly, altered, viewpoint, motivated, group, finishing, previous,

Answer Key

REVIEW: CHAPTER 2 LESSONS 10

page 84 1. adventurous Aaron is very adventurous and loves to travel to exotic places. 2. infectious Courtney has an infectious laugh; anyone who hears it wants to laugh, too. 3. miraculous Tierra made a miraculous recovery from the flu, just in time for Nick’s party. 4. cautious Zachary is cautious with money and always spends his allowance wisely. 5. ambitious If you are hardworking and ambitious, you will succeed in all that you do. 6. furious Hunter was furious when his new bike was stolen at the park.

co- = together

re- = again

mo/tor, 2; ve/hi/cle, 3 bal/loon, 2 steam/boat, 2; U/nit/ed, 3; Del/a/ware, 3 bi/cy/cles, 3; Scot/land, 2 lo/co/mo/tive, 4 street/car, 2 au/to/mo/bile, 4 air/plane, 2 hel/i/cop/ter, 4 su/per/son/ic, 4 com/ple/ted, 3 shut/tle, 2

Answer Key insignificant, failures, fortunately, vanished, always, located page 94 1. failure 2. weak 3. slender 4. careless 5. empty 6. graceful 7. courageous 8. expand 9. stingy 10. often 11. wound 12. professional 1. A 2. S 3. A 4. A 5. S 6. S 7. A 8. A 9. S 10. A 11. S 12. A page 95 1. opportunity 2. natural 3. amazing 4. completely 5. edges 6. permanent 7. reflected 8. harmful page 96 1. Clear Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

empty 2. tangled knotted 3. created invented 4. Divide Separate 5. power strength page 97 changed; probably; lose; move; friends; stories; traveling; end; idea; a job; discovered; capture; home page 98 1. mammal, dog, collie 2. place, city, Las Vegas 3. illness, disease, diabetes 4. subject, language, French 5. event, celebration, birthday 6. feeling, worry, panic 7. plant, tree, willow 8. vehicle, car, sedan 9. structure, building, stadium 10. currency, coin, dime 1. currency, language 2. language, French, birthday, feeling, building page 99 1. ballet 2. sergeant 3. Orion 4. fork 5. teapots 6. novelist; pediatrician 1. duck

2. doghouse 3. flip-flop 4. bookcase 5. painting page 100 Answers will vary. Possible answers: various, huge, transport, few, trustworthy, incredible, about, specific, depart, smart, exact, closer, certain, familiar, boring, artificial page 101 1. demolish Answers will vary. Possible answer: Don’t ruin the book for me by telling me what happens at the end. 2. dirty Answers will vary. Possible answer: The little girls spent all morning making mud pies in the backyard, and by lunchtime, their hands were filthy. 3. consume Answers will vary. Possible answer: I try to eat at least two pieces of fruit every day. 4. Remove Answers will vary. Possible answer: Delete the extra comma from the second paragraph of your report. 5. use Answers will vary. Possible answer: Do you know how to operate the new

Answer Key 161

NAME

Review Synonyms, Antonyms, Shades of Meaning,

and Levels of Specificity Read the sentences below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses that best completes the sentence. On the line, write a new sentence correctly using the word you did not underline.

Answer Key

1. The wreckers are coming to (demolish, ruin) the old building on Tuesday. ________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

DVD player? 6. turn Answers will vary. Possible answer: The door revolves automatically, so be sure to keep moving. 3. Americans (eat, consume) more gas each year than people living in most other countries do.

________________________________________________________________________________

4. (Delete, Remove) the cake from the oven in half an hour.

________________________________________________________________________________

REVIEW: CHAPTER 3 LESSONS 1–3

2. Please load the (dirty, filthy) dishes into the dishwasher before you leave.

5. Can I (use, operate) your cell phone to call my sister?

________________________________________________________________________________

6. If you (turn, revolve) around quickly, you might still see the great blue heron standing on a log in the pond.

________________________________________________________________________________

Draw a line to match each word in the column on the left with a more specific word from the list beside it. 1. exercise

shampoo

7. metal

tarantula

2. shellfish

gallon

8. spider

molar

3. pepper

Japanese

4. cleanser

aerobics

10. tooth

dill

5. Asian

jalapeño

11. herb

9. politician

governor

6. measurement

shrimp

12. muscles

aluminum

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

page 102 1. bolder, boulder 2. sore, soar 3. hoarse, horse 4. seller, cellar 5. wrung, rung 6. billed, build 7. flea, flee 8. aisle, isle 9. peddle, pedal

biceps

Review: Lessons 1–3 Vocabulary 101

flea, flee page 103 1. build 2. symbol 3. road 4. metal 5. sails 6. Capitol 7. side 8. seen Answers will vary. Possible answers: 1. The chili simmered on the stove all afternoon. If you feel chilly tonight, there is an extra blanket in the closet. 2. The queen was sitting on her throne when the Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 162

royal subjects entered the room. The slip of paper with Nicholas’s phone number on it was accidentally thrown away. 3. The stationary bike has been sitting in our basem*nt for at least two years. Anna makes her own customized stationery on the computer.

because she is kind to animals. 7. Although Michael’s comment sounded mean, I don’t think that is what he intended. 8. Can we go shopping for Bethany’s birthday present after school today?

page 104 1. b 2. a 3. a 4. b 5. b 6. a

page 106 bin; flee; there/they’re; weather; fined; weigh; threw; cellars; close; flour; side; peace; bye/by; whole; knead; no

page 105 Answers will vary. Possible answers: 1. Strike the match against the side of the box. 2. The box of old records in the basem*nt was damaged during the flood. 3. Kylie and Robert rode the Ferris wheel at the Bingham County Fair. 4. The cat’s pupils were barely visible in the bright sunlight. 5. The baby in the photograph had a round, chubby face and pink cheeks. 6. The heroine of the book is my favorite character

1. kind 2. round

page 107 1. blocks 2. clubs 3. deck 4. story 5. objects 6. outlet page 108 1. Zoological, Zoo 2. champion, champ 3. airplane, plane 4. mathematics, math 5. Gymnasium, Gym 6. professional, pro 7. hamburgers, burgers 8. limousine, limo 9. Miniature, Mini 1. champ, math 2. burgers

Answer Key

Answer Key page 109 1. UFO 2. SCUBA 3. PTA 4. GPA 5. SUV 6. UNC 7. CIA

page 112 1. necktie 2. professor 3. examination 4. veterinarian 5. substitute 6. miniature 7. referee

1. IMO 2. ASAP 3. LOL 4. BTW 5. OTOH 6. HAND

1. BLT 2. IRS 3. POW 4. ASAP 5. VCR 6. MIT 7. RSVP 8. NATO

page 110 1. a 2. a 3. b 4. b 5. b 6. b 7. b 8. a 1. Paris 2. stack 3. more 4. moist 5. team 6. March 7. neon page 111 1. brunch 2. Internet 3. dumbfound 4. splurged 5. smog 6. splattered 7. scrawl 8. guestimated; flurry Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

page 113 1. tell 2. save 3. drawn 4. race 5. frost 1. c 2. d 3. a 4. f 5. b 6. e 1. Medicare 2. fourteen 3. twirl 4. gleam page 114 The sky was as perfectly blue as the inside of a swimming pool; absorbing the sights and sounds like sponges; His face…was as

creased as a walnut; the octopus…inflate like a balloon; moving the strings like a puppeteer working a marionette; nearly a hundred kites filled the sky like bits of brightly-colored confetti; it soared effortlessly, like a hawk riding a current with outstretched wings page 115 1. leaves; tiny hands 2. golf balls; round eggs 3. house; icebox 4. dog’s tail; flag 5. seashells; tiny treasures 6. Davis; warrior 7. lights of the city; constellation Possible answers: found, round, power, house, proudly page 116 1. sunflowers dance 2. rays of the morning sun skip joyfully 3. mole looked anxiously at his watch 4. leaf sighed 5. night wind whistled, calling for a friend 6. cake beckoned invitingly 7. moped coughed, sputtered, gasping 8. camera eagerly captured each moment, tucking it away 9. The wind angrily rattled the windows.

Answer Key 163

Answer Key 10. chickadees, bickered. 1. Answers will vary. 2. Answers will vary. NAME

Lesson 3.8 Figures of Speech

page 117

Read the following paragraphs. Underline the eight similes and circle the two metaphors. As Juan and his father neared the lake, the paved road disappeared and two strips of gravel became their guide. The crunch of the truck’s tires across the rocks was like someone digging into a bag of potato chips. Suddenly, Juan was hungry for lunch, even though it was only ten in the morning. The four-hour drive from home to the lake had flown by like school recess, mostly

teacher today. 7. I know it’s been a hard week, but try to keep your chin up anyway. 8. Even though it was Samir’s birthday, Leyla stole the spotlight when she performed her song for the guests.

because Juan was having so much fun. He and his dad jammed the radio, talked about sports, and carried on like a couple of old fishing buddies. This trip was only their second time out to the lake, but in some ways it felt like they’d been doing it forever. Soon, the boat drifted quietly through the fog like a leaf bobbing along atop the waves. Juan’s dad didn’t say much. He was now a sea captain hunting for the best spot to drop anchor. Every few minutes, Juan asked if they could cast their lines yet. His dad told him that he sounded like a broken record. Finally, Juan’s dad steered the boat into a small area surrounded by foliage. All along the banks, tree branches hung down into the water. They looked like divers frozen at the moment they hit the surface. Juan took a pole from his dad and smiled in anticipation. Then, he cast his line into the water as if he had been asked to throw the first pitch at a baseball game—the honor was more important than actually hitting the plate. Before he knew it, though, Juan had a bite. The line became a laser beam cutting straight through the water’s surface. Juan’s dad told him to slowly reel the line in, a few turns at a time. Like pulling a bucket from a well, he lifted the fish out of the water and into the boat. Juan knew his lunch would be more than a bag of potato chips now.

page 118 Answers will vary. Possible answers: 1. Katrina got up on the wrong side of the bed this morning, but I’m sure that tomorrow will be a better day. 2. If I make the team, I promise to pull my own weight. 3. The uniforms cost an arm and a leg, but luckily, we’ve received quite a few donations. 4. Ellie is always willing to go the extra mile, so I know she’ll work hard on this assignment. 5. Kathryn, give your mom a hand with the groceries. 6. Mr. Hoffmann is feeling under the weather so we will have a substitute

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Chapter 3 Lesson 8 Vocabulary

page 119 1. made a beeline 2. piece of cake 3. fighting chance 4. just sail through 5. all thumbs 6. couldn’t believe his eyes 7. down in the dumps 8. bent over backwards 9. In the blink of an eye

117

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 164

a fighting chance down in the dumps made a beeline bent over backwards all thumbs a piece of cake in the blink of an eye couldn’t believe his eyes sail through page 120 1. Increase 2. copy 3. foot 4. second 5. Often 6. March 7. student 8. carrots 9. food 10. cleaning 11. twenty-four

12. instrument 13. sweet page 121 1. cow 2. baby 3. melt 4. Thermometer 5. United States 6. Sun 1. Green 2. spice 3. Centimeter 4. profit 5. needle 6. double 7. city 8. shell 9. airplane 10. chicken page 122 1. Detroit 2. sport 3. lead 4. princess 5. web 6. seedling 7. bracelet 8. patients 1. e 2. a 3. f 4. e 5. d 6. c 7. b page 123 1. Sandpaper feels rough, just as silk feels smooth.

Answer Key

Answer Key 1. Answers will vary. Possible answer: Try not to squash the flowers when you are playing ball in the yard. 2. sincere 3. reflection * regal 4. five

necklace sparkling in the sunlight. 2. The sheet of blank paper that lay on the desk in front of Amelia was an invitation to write the best story she had ever written. 3. The darkness wrapped Rosie in a warm, comforting hug.

page 128 1. a 2. b 3. b 4. c

NAME

Review Figures of Speech, Idioms, and Analogies

page 125

Draw a line to match each idiom in column 1 to its definition in column 2. 1. hit the nail on the head

do your share

2. turn one’s stomach

to study

3. take something lying down

to relax and unwind

4. hit the books

to feel disgusted by something

5. let off steam

take shortcuts

6. pull your weight

to accept something without a fight

7. cut corners

to pinpoint something exactly

The following analogies are out of order. Use the hints in line 2 of each analogy to help you place the words in the correct order.

1. Aunt; uncle 2. Court; baseball 3. Wheel; rectangle 4. Matthew; Jenny 5. attraction; illustrate 6. circus; theater 1. Nephew is to niece as aunt is to uncle.

Answers will vary. Possible answers: 1. Present is to absent as shallow is to deep. 2. Nine is to ten as sixty-six is to sixty-seven. 3. Pea is to peanut as rain is to rainbow. page 124 1. S 2. M 3. S 4. M 5. M 6. S 7. S 8. S 9. M 10. S Answers will vary. Possible answers: 1. From the airplane, the river looked like a Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

____________________ is to niece as ____________________ is to nephew.

2. Court is to field as tennis is to baseball.

____________________ is to tennis as field is to ____________________.

3. Wheel is to rectangle as circle is to television.

REVIEW: CHAPTER 3 LESSONS 8–10

2. Thin is a synonym for slender, just as error is a synonym for mistake. 3. A pedal is part of a bicycle, just as a hand is part of a clock. 4. Dishes are stored in a cupboard, just as a wrench is stored in a toolbox. 5. Nine is half of eighteen, just as thirteen is half of twenty-six. 6. Stair and stare are hom*ophones, just as towed and toad are hom*ophones.

act: actor, reacting, action create: creation, recreation, creativity believe: disbelief, unbelieving, believable admit: admission, inadmissible, admitting

____________________ is to circle as television is to ____________________.

4. Matt is to Jennifer as Jenny is to Matthew.

Possible answers: creation, recreation, action, admission

Matt is to ____________________ as ____________________ is to Jennifer.

5. Attract is to illustration as attraction is to illustrate. Attract is to ____________________ as ____________________ is to illustration.

page 126 1. a 2. b 3. a 4. b 5. b 6. b 7. a

6. Circus is to theater as actress is to clown. Clown is to ____________________ as actress is to ____________________.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

page 127 1. cricket 2. contain 3. rub 4. dragonfly 5. divide 6. mosquito 7. find 8. soar

Review: Lessons 8–10 Vocabulary 125

page 129 Answers will vary. Possible answers: begin; charity; misdirected; requested; helpful; shapeless; assistance; progression; worker; wasteful; reused; suggestion; feeling; disbelief page 130 learn; attend; become; write; classroom; begin; notice; think; should; unique; light; spend; research; spell; appear; contain; entry

Answer Key 165

Answer Key page 131 1. Answers 2. Answers 3. Answers 4. Answers 5. Answers

will will will will will

vary. vary. vary. vary. vary.

1. unexperienced, experience 2. realignible, align 3. irregularness, regular 4. ungreasiest, grease 5. misshippers, ship 6. reshapement, shape 7. misunderstatement, state 8. divisionalness, divide 9. semicouraged, courage 10. employingest, employ 11. naturing, nature 12. reneeding, need 13. reapproving, approve 14. prequotation, quote NAME

page 132 1. cello 2. pumpernickel 3. cosmonaut 4. adios 5. origami 6. pajamas 7. bagel 8. ballet

Lesson 4.3 Frequently-Used Foreign Words Many words in the English language have been adopted from foreign languages. For example, banana is an African word, frankfurter is a German word, and bronco is a Spanish word. Read each clue below. Choose the word from the box that matches the clue and write it on the line. Then, find the words in the word search puzzle. Words may be written forward, backward, or diagonally. ballet cosmonaut origami cello pajamas adios bagel pumpernickel 1. an Italian word for an instrument related to the violin

____________________

2. a German word for a heavy dark bread

____________________

3. a Russian word for astronaut

____________________

4. a Spanish word for good-bye or farewell

____________________

5. a Japanese word that describes the art of paper folding

____________________

6. an East Indian word for clothes worn for sleeping

____________________

7. a Yiddish word for a doughnut-shaped type of bread

____________________

8. a French word for a classical form of dance j

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Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 132

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Chapter 4 Lesson 3 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

page 133 Sentences will vary. Possible answers: 1. German Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 166

The delicatessen at the corner of Fourth and Main makes excellent subs. 2. Spanish Brad’s aunt and uncle own a cattle ranch in Montana. 3. Yiddish Can you make me a pastrami sandwich on rye bread? 4. French The bride closed her eyes and tossed the bouquet in the direction of her maid of honor. 5. Japanese Kris has been taking judo lessons for three years. 6. Italian The carnival comes to town every August. 7. Australian (Aboriginal) When it is thrown properly, the boomerang returns to the thrower. 8. Turkish Baqir eats yogurt, granola, and a piece of fruit for breakfast every morning. 1. ranch, boomerang 2. judo, boomerang page 134 1. umbrella 2. thunderstorm 3. Greek, Latin, French 4. create; Answers will vary. Possible answer: A poem is something that an

author creates. It also is the product of being creative. 5. umbra page 135 1. f 2. j 3. i 4. a 5. c 6. k 7. b 8. e 9. d 10. g 11. h Answers may vary slightly, depending upon which dictionary a student uses. 1. from Middle English educaten, from Latin e ¯ duc¯ are 2. from French oxygène, from Greek oxys, sharp, or acid 3. from Middle English, from Old French, from Latin serp¯ ens, from serpere, to creep 4. from Latin plasticus, from Greek plastikos, from plassein, to mold 5. from Middle English, from Old French curios, from Latin c¯ uri¯ osus, from c¯ ura, to care 6. from Italian, from Latin zephirum, from Arabic ifr, nothing 7. from Latin contin¯ ens, continuous, from

Answer Key

Answer Key contin¯ ere, to hold together 8. after Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, German scientist page 136 1. sherbet 2. kangaroo 3. magazine 4. jungle 5. potato 6. pickle 7. sled 8. typhoon 9. debris 10. carnival

1. perfume 2. cookie 3. elevate 4. acrobat

page 139 1. meter 2. micro 3. ology 4. graph 5. ast 6. scope 1. the 2. the 3. the 4. the 5. the

study study study study study

of of of of of

music the mind volcanoes animals myths

page 140 1. annual 2. auditorium 3. liberty 4. millipede 5. aquamarine 6. maritime 7. pedal Answers will vary. Possible Lesson 4.6 Latin Roots answer: year, liberty, bicycle NAME

port = carry (transport) rupt = break (abrupt) scrib, script = write (inscribe)

struct = build (structure) tract = pull or drag (attract) claim, clam = shout; cry out (proclaim)

page 141

Complete each sentence with a word from the box and circle the Latin roots. subtract

interrupting

subscribes

transportation

exclaimed

subscribes

1. The Getty family ____________________ to four magazines and two newspapers.

elevate, acrobat, perfume

exclaimed

2. “My soccer team made it to the championship!” ____________________ Tyler. 3. It’s hard for Leah to talk on the phone because her twin brothers are always

interrupting subtract

____________________.

page 138 1. chronological 2. hom*ophones 3. biography 4. tricycle 5. manual 6. thermos 7. Cyclops

4. Remember to ____________________ your expenses from your profits when you calculate the figures from the yard sale.

transportation Luis researched cars, trains, 5. For his report on the history of ____________________, airplanes, and boats. Read each word below. On the first line, define the word. On the second line, write a sentence using it. You may use a dictionary if you need help.

1. something, like a building, made up of assembled parts Although the structure was nearly two hundred years old, it was still strong

page 142 1. G, thermos 2. L, construct 3. L, porter Review Greek and Latin Roots 4. G, biography 5. L, audition 6. G, chronological 7. G, hom*ophones NAME

Read the clues below. Choose the word from the box that matches each clue and write the answer in the numbered space in the crossword puzzle. transport aqueduct exclaim chronicle pedestrian cyclone disrupt astronaut microchip attract anniversary

Across 1. a pipe that transports water 3. to interrupt or stop the progress of 4. a storm in which the wind blows in rings 6. to say loudly or forcefully 8. a person traveling by foot 9. the day each year marking a special event 10. to carry or move

page 143

a q u e d u c t t r a c y c l o n e t h r p e o a n n i v e r i c t l e

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

1. structure ______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

2. erupt __________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

3. prescribe ______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

4. portable ______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Down 1. to pull or draw together 2. a very small piece of electronic equipment 5. an account of events in the order in which they happened 7. a person who travels into space

t

m d i s r u p t c r o e x c l a i m a h d e s t r i a n t p s a r y o r a n s p o r t a u t Review: Lessons 5–6 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 143

page 144 1. b 2. a 3. a 4. c

Chapter 4 Lesson 6 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 141

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

Answer Key 167

REVIEW: CHAPTER 4 LESSONS 5–6

page 137 1. to mutter 2. Greek, Latin, French, English 3. melidi; Answers will vary. Possible answer: When people sing, they usually follow a melody or a tune.

and sturdy. 2. to burst, release, or explode The students watched the volcano erupt on the television screen. 3. to write an order for medicine Did the doctor prescribe anything for your infection? 4. able to be carried from one place to another Lexi saved all the money she made babysitting and bought a portable MP3 player on sale.

1. recycling 2. chronicles 3. thermostat 4. symphony

An accent mark (') tells which syllable of a word is stressed, or said with more force. Try saying /e kad' e me ¯ / with the stress on different syllables. Can you hear the difference when the correct syllable is stressed? • Some words have two accents. The primary accent is usually bold. The syllable with the secondary accent is said with less force. /ûrth’ kwa ¯ k’/ /pôl’ e ¯ wôg’/ /ek’ ser si¯z’/ • Remember, the schwa does not appear in stressed syllables. e

e

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Read each bold word out loud. Circle the letter of the respelling in which the primary accent mark is placed correctly. 1. multiplied

a. mul’ te pli¯d'

b. mul’ te pli¯d’

2. jury

a. jûr' e ¯

b. jûr e ¯’

e

e

3. songbird

a. sông’ bûrd’

b. sông’ bûrd’

4. window

a. win’ do ¯

b. win do ¯’

5. carpenter

a. kär pen’ ter

b. kär’ pen ter

NAME

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Answer Key

Review Respellings and Accent Marks

Read the sentences below. Add the primary accent to each bold respelling.

5. b 6. c 7. a

1. One of the best things you can do to help the /en vi¯ ren ment/ is to reduce, reuse, e

e

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1. Chislehurst Caves, located in a suburb of London, are /ak chü e le ¯/ e

3. /in sted/ of buying /bôt ld/ water in plastic bottles, bring your own /re ¯ u ¯ z e bel/ e e

’ ’

page 151

Read the sentences below. Underline the stressed syllable in the bold word. On the line, write the word that matches each bold respelling.

and /re ¯ si¯ kel/. 2. Make your /pa ¯ per/ last twice as long by printing on the back of each page.

actually

____________________ former chalk and flint mines.

water jug with you /hwâr ev er/ you go. e

earliest

used in place of paper /tou elz/. e

5. Read /la ¯ belz/, and use products made from recycled /me têr e ¯ elz/. e

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tunnels

____________________ and passageways.

it’s important to you and /ik spla ¯ n ing/ how they can get started.

varies

NAME

4. The depth of the caves /vär e ¯ z/ ____________________ from 40 feet below the

surface

/sûr fes/ ____________________ to about 150 feet underground.

Lesson 4.8 Accent Marks

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page 149

steady

5. The temperature of the caves remains /sted e ¯/ ____________________, summer or

All the words listed below contain both a primary and a secondary accent. Circle the primary accent in each word.

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics 1. /e kôm’ e da ¯’ shenz/ Grade 6

5. /wôl’ nut’/Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

148

2. /hel’ i kôp’ ter/

6. /sum’ bôd’ e ¯/

3. /rat’l sna ¯ k’/

7. /gâr’ en te ¯ ’/

4. /lo ¯ ’ ke mo ¯ ’ shen/

8. /pär tis’ e pa ¯t’/

degrees

winter, at 45 /di gre ¯ z/ ____________________ Fahrenheit.

Chapter 4 Lesson 8

6. The last time the caves were used as mines was in the 1830s, but they have had

other

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a b b a a b a

Each bold word below has two possible pronunciations. Beside each phonetic spelling, write the letter of the matching definition. tract’ ______

mi¯ nüt’ ______

city convenient electricity and contained a 10. The caves were wired for /i lek tris i te ¯/ ____________________ hospital chapel, movie theater and gym. /hôs pi tl/ ____________________,

11. During the war, the caves were filled with about 15,000 people seeking shelter

b. small or tiny ôb’ jekt’

ôb’ jikt ______

a. a noun or pronoun

4. refuse

b. a verbal or written agreement

min’ it ______

a. a unit of time

3. object

ken tract’ ______ e

kôn’

a. to shrink; to become infected with

page 146 cider; juice; cinnamon; ginger; processor; cookie; pieces; softened; evaporates; fruit; leather; applesauce; oven; ready; stored; increase

amazing

____________________ underground /sit e ¯/ ____________________.

9. They were a /ken ve ¯ n yent/ ____________________ air raid shelter for Londoners. e

1. contract

8. During World War II, the caves were turned into an /e ma ¯ z ing/ e

1. b 2. a 3. a 4. b 5. b 6. a 7. b

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many /uth er/ ____________________ uses since that time. 7. Mushrooms grow well in dark, damp /pla ¯ sez/ ____________________, so for some time the caves were used as a sort of mushroom farm.

Some multiple-meaning words are spelled the same but pronounced differently. For example, project can be pronounced /pre jekt’/ or /prôj’ ekt’/. The meaning is different depending on which syllable is stressed.

2. minute

every

/ev r¯ e/ ____________________ night.

______ Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

b. to disagree or oppose

Review: Lessons 7–8 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 151

ri fu ¯ z’ ______

a. garbage or trash

ref' u ¯ z ______ b. to decline or be unwilling

5. compress

kôm’ pres’ ______

kem pres’ ______ e

b. squash or press together

a. a soft bandage 6. upset

up set’ ______

NAME up’ set’ ______

page 150 Review Respellings and Accent Marks kas’ l el’ f nt k nü’ k m p¯ u’ t r gi tär’ brôk’ l¯ e tor n¯ a’ d¯ o b nan’ ham’ k a. to tip over or capsize

b. when the favored team loses

e e e

7. conduct ken dukt’ ______ kôn’ dukt ______ Look at each picture below. On the line, write the respelling of the word that names the a. Include how a person acts accent mark in each respelling. b. to lead, especially an orchestra picture. the primary e

Chapter 4 Lesson 8 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins 149

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____________________

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____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

[art spec: hammock]

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____________________

____________________

____________________

Read the newspaper headlines below. Underline the word from the pair in parentheses in which the accent or accents are correctly placed. 1. Local Teen Wins (re ¯ je’ nel, re ¯ ’ je nel) Spelling Championship e e

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2. (hev e ¯ ’, hev’ e ¯ ) Weekend Storms Knock Out Power to 150,000 Residents 3. Clausen Withdraws from Race Three Weeks Before (i lek’ shen, i lek shen’) e

REVIEW: CHAPTER 4 LESSONS 7–8

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

page 147 1. in trist; tal nt 2. tr¯ an ing; pr fesh n lz 3. r¯ a sh l l¯ e; di rek t r 4. m¯ ak; thrü; kul cher 5. kum p n¯ e; mâr i k n 6. k m¯ u ni k¯ at; r¯ as 7. mung; wûrld

include

3. The caves /in klüd/ ____________________ approximately 22 miles of /tun elz/

6. If you /viz it/ someplace that doesn’t recycle, write a letter telling the /kum pe ne ¯/

e

page 145 different, styles, heard, combines, melodies, folk, traditional, rhythmic, accompanies, guitar, classical, usually, instrument, upbeat, religious, brought, region, percussion, years, quietly

reference

____________________ known /ref er ens/ ____________________ to them is A.D. 1250.

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2. No one is sure exactly how old the caves are, but the /ûr le ¯ ist/

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4. Plans for New East Side Shopping Mall—Why Are (pe ¯ pel’, pe ¯ ’ pel) Protesting? e

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5. (mi stêr’ e ¯ es, mi’ stêr e ¯ es) Briefcase Found Containing $2,000 e

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professionals, racially

6. (lo ¯ ’ kel, lo ¯ kel’) Funding Cuts Mean Arts School May Have to Shut Its Doors 7. (e non’ e mes, e non e mes’) Donor Contributes $45,000 to Renovation of e

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Kaufmann Theater 8. Hollywood Comes to Town for Filming of New (ak shen’, ak’ shen) Flick e

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6 168

Spectrum Word Study and Phonics Grade 6

e

page 148 1. a 2. a 3. b 4. a 5. b

Review: Lessons 7–8 Dictionary Skills and Word Origins

150

Answer Key

REVIEW: CHAPTER 4 LESSONS 7–8

4. /do ¯ na ¯ t/ clothes you’ve outgrown to /châr i te ¯ z/, or cut them into rags that can be

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